14 July, 2016

Facts About Jammu & Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir  is a state in northern India, often denoted by the acronym J&K. It is located mostly in the Himalayan mountains, and shares borders with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south. Jammu and Kashmir has an international border with China in the north and east, and the Line of Control. The state has special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India.


The State of Jammu & Kashmir is situated in extreme north of India. It was founded on 26 October, 1947.
J&K touches International boundaries with:
·         China in the north and east,
·         Afghanistan in the north-west
·         Pakistan in the west

It consists of three region:-


Summer Capital -> Shrinagar
Winter Capital -> Jammu
CM -> Mehbooba Mufti
Governor -> Narinder Nath Vohra
High Court-> Jammu and Kashmir High Court   [Srinagar Wing (Summer) and Jammu Wing (Winter)]
Chief Justice of High Court of J&K-> Sh. Justice N. Paul Vasanthakumar
Administrative Language -> Urdu
Major Industries -> Handicrafts & Handlooms
State day-> Accession day (26th Octuber)
Nicknames/Special titles of cities:
Jammu & Kashmir -> Heaven of India
CitySpecial Names
SrinagarCity of Rivers/lakes
KashmirSwitzerland of India
SiachenHighest and coldest battlefield in the world
JammuCity of Temples

Folk Dance:


S. No.Dance
1.Rouf
2.Bhand Panther
3.Hafiza
4.Bhand Jashan
5.Bacha Nagmaa
6.Dumhal
 
Important Tribes:
 
S. No.Tribe’s nameRemarks
1.BakharwalKnown as “DHANGAR” in rest of India
2.Gaddi
3.Gurjar or Gujjar
4.Sippi
Important Festivals:
S. No.Festivals
1.Baisakhi
2.Lohri
3.Eid-ul-Fitr
4.Eid-ul-Azha
5.Hemis
Important Rivers and Dams 
RIVERDAMPurpose
ChenabBaglihar, Dulhasti , SalalHydroelectric
IndusNimoo BazgoHydroelectric
Satluj
Masurdar(tributary
of Chenab)
PakalDulHydroelectric
JhelumUri-IIHydroelectric
Important Lakes 

S. No.LakeRemarksLocated in/near
1.Dal Lake“Jewel in the crown of Kashmir”Srinagar
2.Gadsar Lake“Lake of flowers”Sonamarg
3.Krishnasar LakeSonamarg
4.Gangabal Lake“Haramukh Ganga”Sonamarg
5.Nagin Lake“Jewel In The Ring”Srinagar
6.Wular Lake“Largest fresh water lake in Asia”Srinagar               
7.Manasbal Lake“Bird’s Paradise”Srinagar               
8.Pangong LakeShare international boundary with ChinaLeh
9.Tso Kar Lake“White or Salty lake”Ladakh
10.Sheshnag LakePahalgam

Important National Parks, Bird and Wildlife Sanctuary:
National ParkFamous speciesPlace/near
Dachigam National ParkHangul(Kashmiri Stag)Srinagar
Salim Ali National ParkSrinagar
Kazinag National ParkMarkhor(Capra falconeri)Srinagar
Kishtwar High Altitude National ParkHimalayan Snow Cock and brown bear
City Forest National Park (CFO)known as “Salim National Park”Srinagar
Hemis National Parkit is believed to have the highest density of snow leopards of any protected area in the worldLadakh
Glulmarg WLSMusk DeerSrinagar
Limber WLSBaramulla
Nandini WLSJammu
Important Mountains:
MountainsHeightsRemarksPlace/near
Karakoram & Kyunlun ranges (k2)8615 MSecond highest peak of the world.these mountains lie to the north and north-east of the State
Nanga Parbat Range8107 MIt is also known as “NAKED MOUNTAIN” or “DEO MIR” or “KILLER MOUNTAIN”Gilgit
Soyamji (volcanic mountain)1860MNorth Machhipura (Handwara)
Pir Panjal Range (part of greater Himalyan)1400-4100MJ & K and Himachal Pradesh
Amarnath (part of Himalyan)5372 MIt is Called SHESHANG as its peak resemble the heads of seven big snakes.Gander district of Kashmir
Harmukh (part of Himalyan)5142 MIt is the abode of LORD SHIVA.Ganderbal District of Jammu and Kashmir
Shiwalik Range1500 MShiwalik means “TREES OF SHIVA” and known as “MANAK PARBAT” in ancient time.from the Indus and ends close to the Brahmaputra
Important Temples/Archaeological Monuments/Sites:

S. No.Temples/Archaeological Monuments/SitesRemarks
1.Amarnath Temple
2.Vaishno Devi MandirReserve Bank of India (RBI) released coins with Maa Vaishno Devi’s image on the Head side of the coins.
3.Bahu Fort
4.Raghunath Templetemple are covered with gold sheet on three sides while the interiors of the temple are plated with gold
5.Peer kho cave templeit is widely believed that Ramayan character Jamvant (the bear God) meditated in this cave.
6.Panchbakhtar TempleIt is one of the oldest Shivalya in the city and the Lingam in this temple is self manifested (Aap Shambu).
7.Mahamaya Temple
8.Shankaracharya Templeknown as Takht-I-Sulaiman
9.Hari Parbat Fort & Temple of Sharika Devi
10.Kheer Bhawani
11.Jama MasjidOriginally built by Sultan Sikandar in 1400 AD
12.Hazratbal Mosqueonly domed mosque in Srinagar
13.Khanqah of Shah Hamadanfirst mosque ever built in 1395 Srinagar
14.Chhatti Padshahi Gurudwara
15.Shalimar BaghMughal Garden
16.Chashme Shahione of the Mughal gardens built in 1632 ADNubra Valley, north east of Ladakh valley
17.Thikse MonasteryLeh in Ladakh
18.Shanti StupaBuddhist white-domed stupa on a hilltop in Chanspa, Leh district
19.Magnetic HillLeh
20.Leh Palacebuilt by King Sengge Namgyal in the 17th century
21.St. Joseph's Catholic ChurchIt was established in 1891, by Mill Hill Missionaries, making it the oldest Catholic church in Jammu and Kashmir
22.Martand Temple dedicated to Lord Surya , the “Sun God”
23.Amar Mahal Palacebuilt in the nineteenth century for Raja Amar Singh, a Dogra king
Important stadiums:

S. No.StadiumCity
1.Sher-i-KashmirSrinagar
2.BakshiSrinagar
3.Maulana AzadJammu
Major Airports:
S. No.NameCity
1.Sheikh Ul Alam International airport (Srinagar airport)Srinagar
2.Jammu airportJammu
3.Leh Kushok Bakula Rimpochee AirportLeh
4.Kargil airport
5.Poonch airportJammu
6.Kushok Bakula Rimpochhe AirportLeh
Constituency of Cabinet Minister:
S. No.Name of MinisterConstituencyMinistry (MoS)
1.
Dr. Jitendra Singh
Udhampur
Development of North Eastern Region (Independent Charge)
Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions
Department of Atomic Energy
Department of Space
HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS
1. Mohra Hydro-Electric Power Stations-
Srinagar, Sopore, Baramulla and Gulmarg towns are supplied electric power from this power station.
2. The Sind Valley Hydro-Electric Project-This project established in 1955, is near Ganderbal on the
bank of the Nullah Sind towards its east. The project is a multipurpose one. Its water is used for a
variety of purposes, like irrigation, generation of electricity, flood control, navigation, fish culture and soil preservation.
3. The Pahalgam Hydro-Electric Project-
The river Liddar is an important tributary of the Jhelum. It has been harnessed for water power at Pahalgam and  helps in lighting tourists huts and running cottage industries.
4. Lower Jhelum Hydel Project (Sheri)-
 This project for generating electricity has only one stage which generates 105 megawatts of electric power.

ARTICLE 370:
Article 370 embodied six special provisions for Jammu and Kashmir:
It exempted the State from the complete applicability of the Constitution of India. The State was allowed to have its own Constitution.
Central legislative powers over the State were restricted to the three subjects of defence, foreign affairs and communications.
Other constitutional provisions of the Central Government could be extended to the State only with the concurrence of the State Government.
The `concurrence' was only provisional. It had to be ratified by the State's Constituent Assembly.
The Government's authority to give `concurrence' lasted only until the State Constituent Assembly was convened. Once the State Constituent Assembly finalized the scheme of powers and dispersed, no further extension of powers was possible.
The Article 370 could be abrogated or amended only upon recommendation of the State's Constituent Assembly.

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