At the time of independence, the boundary line between the two newly created independent countries i.e. Pakistan and India was drawn right across the Indus Basin, leaving Pakistan as the lower riparian. Moreover, two important irrigation head works, one at Madhopur on Ravi River and the other at Ferozepur on Sutlej River, on which the irrigation canal supplies in Punjab (Pakistan) had been completely dependent, were left in the Indian territory. A dispute thus arose between two countries regarding the utilization of irrigation water from existing facilities. In order to solve the water dispute between these two countries Indus Waters Treaty was signed between India and Pakistan.
The Indus Waters Treaty is a landmark water-distribution treaty between India and Pakistan signed in Karachi on 19 september 1960 by the Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Ayub Khan. But the World Bank brokered the 1960 agreement that regulates the flow of six rivers between India and Pakistan.
The Indus Waters Treaty gave control over the three "eastern" rivers — the Beas, the Ravi and the Sutlej to India, while control over the three "western" rivers — the Indus, the Chenab and the Jhelum —to Pakistan.The treaty is considered to be one of the most successful watersharing endeavours in the world today.
The source of the Indus basin begin in Tibet and the Himalayan mountains in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. They flow from the hills through the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir and Sindh, converging in Pakistan and emptying into the Arabian Sea south of Karachi. Both India and Pakistan are still at loggerheads over various issues since Partition, but there has been no fight over water after the Treaty was ratified.The agreement set up the Permanent Indus Commission to adjudicate any future disputes arising over the allocation of water.The treaty administers how river Indus and its tributaries that flow in both the countries will be utilised. The Treaty also provides arbitration mechanism to solve disputes amicably.
Despite several attempts from pakistan in order to disturb india. India has never revoke the treaty or taken any action which affect the common people of pakistan. Recent Uri attack in Kashmir on Indian army forces India to stand against Pakistan and think out of its context of peace and negotiation .Indian PM Modi addressed the issue with a strong statement in his speech where he conveyed the message that "blood and water can't flow together".
Water is the essential need of everyone irrespective of cast , colour and boundaries .India always promotes the cordial relation with its neighbouring nation and always favors the environment of negotiations and cooperation with its neighbouring countries. India known for its peaceful tactics and support to other nations and always believe that war is not the solution of any problem. But India is capable enough to protect its territories and its citizen at any cost. India has proven this thing in past and is capable enough to repeat the history once again.
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