Showing posts with label competitive exams. Show all posts
Showing posts with label competitive exams. Show all posts

22 January, 2017

ECONOMICS NOTES for SSC CHSL EXAM

Definition: A rise in the general level of price in an economy. That is sustained over time.

The opposite of Inflation in ‘deflation’.Inflation, in general, is just a price rise.When the general level of prices is falling over a period of time it is called deflation.The rate of inflation is measured on the basis of price indices which are of two kind WPI & CPIWPI - Wholesale Price IndexCPI - Consumer price Index

Rate of inflation (Year x)

In the index, the total weight is taken as 100 at particular year of the past i.e. Base year (Year of reference)Inflation is measured ‘point to point’. It means that the reference dates for the annual inflation are January to January of two consecutive years. This is similar for even weekly inflation.

Types of Inflation: Broadly there are 2 types of inflation.
(a) Demand - Pull Inflation:

A mismatch between demand & supply pulls up the price.Either demand increases over the same level of supply or the supply decreases the same level of demand.This is Keynesian idea.

(b) Cost - Push Inflation:-

An increase factor input costs (i.e. wage & raw materials) push up the prices.A price rise which is the result of the increase in the production cost is cost - push inflation.

A measure of check inflation:-
(1) Supply side: 

Govt may import.Govt may increase production.Govt may improve storage. Transportation, hoarding etc

(2) Cost side:

Govt may cut down production cost by giving tax breaks, cuts in duties etc.By adopting Better production process, technological Innovation etc.Increasing Income of people also helps in checking inflation.

(3) Other steps:

 Tighter monetary policies can be introduced by RBI, this might help in a short run.Increasing production with the help of best production practices is a long term solution.

Other types of inflation: In General there are 3 Broad Categories i.e.
(i) Low inflation:- 

 It is slow & predictable. Takes place in a longer period. The range of increase is usually in single digit. It is also called CREEPING INFLATION

(ii) Galloping Inflation:- 

It is very high inflationRange of increase is usually in double digit or triple digit It is also known as hopping inflation, jumping inflation & Running Runaway inflation. 

(iii) Hyper-Inflation:-

This type of inflation is large and Accelerating. (This might have annual rates in Millions or even Trillion.(Range of increase is very large but increase takes place in a very short span of time. The price shoots up overnight.

Over variants of inflation:-  
(i) Bottleneck inflation:-

This inflation takes place when supply falls drastically & the demand remains at the same level. Such situation arises due to supply ride accidents, hazards or Mismanagement.It is also known as ‘structural Inflation’It can be put Under ‘demand-pull inflation

(ii) Core inflation:-

This nomenclature is based on the inclusion or Exclusion of the good & services while calculating inflation.  In India, it was 1st time used in the financial year 2001-02. In India, it means inflation of Manufactured goods. 

14 January, 2017

STATISTICS(basic concept) NOTES for RRB NTPC EXAM

The words ‘Statistics’ appears to have been derived from the latin word ‘status’ meaning a (political) state. In its origin, Statistic was simply the collect of data on different aspects of the life of the people.

Statistics deals with data collected for specific purposes. We can make decisions about the data by analysing and interpreting it.

Central line tendency

Mean: The mean or average of a number of observation is the sum of the value of all the observation divided by the total number of the observations.

It is denoted by the symbol,  read as x bar

Here n is a number of observation.

Example- people were asked about the time in a week they spend in doing social work in their community. They said 10, 7, 13, 20 and 15 hours respectively.Find the mean (or average) time in a week devoted by them in social work.

Sol. The mean =(Sum of all the observations)/(Total number of observations)

=(10 + 7 + 13 + 20 + 15)/5=65/5=13 

So, the time spent by these 5 people in doing social work is 13 hours in a week.

The median- the median is that value of the given number of observations, which divide it into exactly two parts.  when the data is arranged in ascending or decreasing order.

The median of ungrouped data is calculated as follows:

(i) When the number of observation (n) is odd, the median is the value of the ((n+1)/2)ith observation.    

Example: If n = 15, the value of the ((15+1)/2)ith i.e. the 8th observation will be median

(ii) When the number of observation (n) is even, the median is the mean of the (n/2)ith and (n/2+1)ith observations.

Example: If n = 16 the mean of the value of the (16/2)ith and (16/2+1)ith observations. 

Example: The height (in cm) of 9 students of a class follows.

155, 152, 160, 144, 145, 148, 150, 147,149

Find the median of the data

Sol. Arrange the data in ascending data

144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 155, 160

Since the number of students is 9, an odd number.

Median is the height of the   = 5th student which is 149 cm

So, median = 149 cm

 Modes: The mode is that value of the observation which occurs most frequently i.e. an observation with the maximum frequency is called the mode.

Example: Find the mode of the following marks (out of 10) obtained by 20 students.

4, 6, 5, 9, 3, 2, 7, 7, 6, 5, 4, 9, 10, 10, 3, 4, 7, 6, 9, 9

Sol. We arrange this data in the following form:

2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 9, 9, 9, 9,10, 10

Here 9 occurs most frequently i.e. four times. So, the mode is 9.

04 January, 2017

GEOGRAPHY NOTES: Indian Agriculture For RRB NTPC EXAM and SSC CHSL EXAM

Green Revolution – I
Introduced in 1966 (Plan Holiday)
Father of Green Revolt – Dr. Norman Borlog
Father of Green Revolt – M. S. Swaminathan (In India)

Objectives: - Use of high yielding variety seeds, fertiliser, power and increase food productivity.
Green Revolt – Phase – I – Wheat 
Phase – II – Rice
Focus Area: - Punjab, Haryana, Western U.P.  

Green Revolution– II   concept by – Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
“Evergreen Revolution or Rainbow revolution”
Start in decade of 2000
Objective: - Promote agriculture a/c to climate condition and also promote organic farming and increase overall food security.
Focus crop: - Milk, egg, Meat, Vegetable → A/C to climatic condition
Focus Area: - All India

Organic farming: - No use/less use of fertiliser
- use bio fertiliser, like – Earthworm
- the concept is given by – Albert Howard (1930 – 40)

Zero farming: - up to 3-4 years. – Continuous use of organic fertiliser/ organic farming and due to this fertility of soil increase and After  some period, there will be no use of fertiliser

JHOOM CULTIVATION -

In this farming, after cutting one crop the land is left as it is for some years. Nothing is grown there. The weeds or bamboo which grow on that land are not pulled out. They are cut and burnt. The ash makes the land fertile. While burning, care is taken so that the fire does not spread to other parts of the forest. When the land is ready for farming it is lightly dug up, not ploughed. Seeds are dropped on it. In one farm different types of crops like maize, vegetables, chillies, rice can be grown.

Tribal society (Northeast region)

Consumption of NPK (Ideal) = 4 : 2 : 1
                                    ↓
                                 In India = 5.5 : 2.7 : 1 (used)
Net sawing Area (India) = 142 million Hectare → 39% Irrigated
Irrigation: Wells, tube well (60%) > Canal (27%) > Tank (13%)
Net Irrigated area: U.P. > M.P. > RJ
Irrigation Intensity: PB > U.P.
Tank Irrigation: AP > TN > UP
Well Irrigation: UP > PB > Bihar
Canal Irrigation: UP > RJ > HR

IRRIGATION PROJECT
1. Micro → Less than 2000 Hectare
2. Medium → 2000 – 5000 Hectare
3. Large → Above 5000 Hectare

Major crops in India
1. Rice:-
Monsoon/Tropical crop
Kharif
world – India (maximum Area – Sow – Rice)
Largest producer of rice in world – China
Second – India 

Breed:-
1. Samba, Kuruwai – Tamilnadu
2. Kamini – WB
3. Basmati – UP

National Rice Research Institute – Katak (Orissa)
Largest rice producer in India – WB
Bowl of rice – Chattisgarh (Per hectare productivity max.)
People of India – Maximum eating habit – Rice
Nellore District(AP) – Rice productive high
Highest fertiliser used – HP

2. Wheat:-
2nd largest food crop in India
Largest wheat producer of world – China
2nd largest wheat producer of world – India
Largest wheat producer in India – UP > PB > HR
export – Punjab
productivity – Punjab

Breed:-
1. Larma
2. Rajo
3. Sonal

LARGEST PRODUCER IN India
1. BARLEY ( U.P.)
2. BAJRA (RJ)
3. Maize (AP)
4. PULSES ( MP)
5. MUSTARD(RJ)
6. GROUNDNUT(GJ)
7. SUNFLOWER (KA)
8. SOYABEAN( MP))
9. COCONUT/SPICES (KERALA)
10. SUGARCANE (UP)
11. SUGAR (MH)
12. COTTON (GJ)
13. TEA (ASSAM)
14. COFFEE (KA)
15. RUBBER(KERALA)
16. ONION (MH)
17. JUTE (WB)

29 December, 2016

SSC - Sample Online Exam

Dear Students, SSC is going to conduct CHSL 2016 from 7th January 2017 to 5th February 2017. SSC has already issued the venue details of candidates. Soon, SSC will issue Admit cards also. Keep checking your respective regional websites for Admit Cards. 

SSC has also issued a Sample Online Exam for candidate's convenience and training for the online exam. You can check it on SSC official website. It's important to be familiar with the latest change in the pattern  of The SSC Computer Based Exam. 

SSC has taken a very good initiative by uploading a Sample Online Exam. Below, You'll find the link and a screenshot of the Sample form. All the candidates are advised to go through this Sample Online Exam and be exam ready. 

We wish you all the very best for your SSC CHSL Exam. 
 

 

 

CLICK HERE FOR THE LINK 

20 November, 2016

How to reach Akademia Online Test Centre, Dwarka

Hello Friends

Today I will tell you about common route to exam centre Akademia Online Test Centre, Dwarka.
First you have to reach Dwarka Mor Metro railway station, then you have to take e-rickshaw which will take 5 or 10 rupees to the exam centre.


I hope you like this, so kindly comment below the post and do share your response. Thanks for reading :)

03 November, 2016

बैंको के Headquarters के नाम याद रखने की Short Trick

A. याद रखने के लिए
यदि किसी बैंक के नाम में " Bank of India " आता है तो उसका मुख्यालय मुंबई होगा
.
BANK OF INDIA “ ==> -MUMBAI
1. BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
2. Central BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
3. Industrial Development BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
4. State BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
5. Union BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
6. Reserve BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
7. Securities and Exchange BOARD OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
8. Dena Bank - ==> MUMBAI (देना बैंक को छोड़ कर)
B. यदि किसी बैंक के नाम में " UNITED " आता है तो उसका मुख्यालय KOLKATA होगा.
9. UNITED Bank of India
10. UNITED Commercial Bank
11. Allahbad Bank
C. यदि किसी बैंक के नाम में " PUNJAB MAHILA " आता है तो उसका मुख्यालय DELHI होगा.
12. PUNJAB National Bank
13. PUNJAB & Sind Bank
14. Bharathiya MAHILA Bank
15. Oriental bank of commerce
D. यदि किसी बैंक के नाम में " INDIAN " आता है तो उसका मुख्यालय CHENNAI होगा.
16. INDIAN Overseas Bank
17. INDIAN Bank
E. यदि किसी बैंक के नाम में " VIJAY or CAN " आता है तो उसका मुख्यालय BENGALURU होगा.
18. VIJAYa Bank
19. CANara Bank
F. व्यक्तिगत बैंक (INDIVIDUAL BANKS)
19) ANDHRA BANK ==> HYDERABAD(CAPITAL OF ANDHRA PRADESH)
20) Bank of BARODA ==> BARODA/
VADODARA(GUJARAT)
21) Bank Of Maharashtra ==> PUNE (Maharashtra)
22) Corporation Bank ==> MANGALURU
23) Syndicate Bank ==> MANIPAL

31 October, 2016

ASEAN :One Vision One Identity One Community

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional grouping which promotes economic, political, and security cooperation among its members. It was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. 

The ASEAN Community is comprised of three pillars, the Political-Security Community, Economic Community and Socio-Cultural Community. ASEAN work with a motto of “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”. The group was expanded by adding 5 more nations which are Brunei Darussalam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. Cambodia was the last added member of the group in 1999.

Currently ASEAN has ten members :  

Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Lao PDR , Vietnam,  Myanmar and Cambodia.

ASEAN Headquarter : Jakarta, Indonesia

ASEAN was basically established in order to:

1. To promote the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavors in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations.

2. To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.

3. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields.

4. To provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities in the educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres.

5. To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilization of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, including the study of the problems of international commodity trade, the improvement of their transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of their peoples.

6.To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organizations with similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves.

In 1976 a Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia was signed by the ASEAN member states to adopt some of the fundamental principles:

1.Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations.

2.The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion.

3.Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another.

4.Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner.

The ASEAN Vision 2020, adopted by the ASEAN Leaders on the 30th Anniversary of ASEAN, agreed on a shared vision of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outward looking, living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caring societies.

The 28th and 29th Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit was held in Vientiane, Laos from 6th to 8th September 2016. Prime Minister of the Lao PDR H.E. Thongloun Sisoulith was Chairperson of the summit. The theme of the summit was “Turning Vision into Reality for a Dynamic ASEAN Community”.

ASEAN 2017 will be hosted by Philippines with a theme of :

“Partnering for change, engaging the world” – a reference to Duterte’s campaign slogan “change is coming.”

India - ASEAN Relation

For India ASEAN is a major boost for India’s look east policy and promoting its market to the eastern world. The ASEAN-India Free Trade Area has been completed with the entering into force of the ASEAN-India Agreements on Trade in Service and Investments on 1 July 2015. India is working with ASEAN group on different projects in the fields of Agriculture, Science & Technology, Space, Environment & Climate Change, Human Resource Development, Capacity Building, New and Renewable Energy, Tourism, People-to-People contacts and Connectivity etc.  The 8th edition of Delhi Dialogue is being hosted by the MEA in partnership with IDSA, FICCI and other select Indian and ASEAN partners on 17-19 February 2016 in New Delhi. DD VIII has 'ASEAN-India Relations: A New Paradigm' as its theme and includes an Inaugural Business Session, a Ministerial Session, and an Academic session.

For India ASEAN is not only important for the economic purpose but also a one of the platform from where India can counter the influence of china. China is growing at a rapid pace and coordination of china with Pakistan is really a great threat for the India so in order to counter the increasing pace of china ASEAN can play a crucial role for India. South china sea dispute with Philippines and involvement of Indian company for oil exploration in the south china sea can be seen as an important point with respect of India's increasing relation with some of the ASEAN members. India can be benefited with the involvement of ASEAN members through bilateral talks and proper utilization of International organizations.

29 October, 2016

How to reach Ion Digital Zone C Block Noida

Hello Friends,

It's always been adventure to find new place but sometimes it could be so frustrating too for people who are not aware about this place.

Today i will tell you about common path of iON Digital Zone iDZ 1 & 2, 30/7A, C Block, Sector 62, C Block, Phase 2, Industrial Area, Sector 62, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201309.
The path is simple and very easy.
Normal Day Ion Digital Noida


1. First reach to Noida City Centre and then take auto to C-Block, sector-62 to reach the centre. (Fare- 30 Rupees/-)
There are two big companies buildings- Samsung and Barclays.

2.From Noida Sec 15 either you can take sharing auto for sector 62 and get down near CSC ( You can tell auto driver to stop at CSC, Fare : 20 rs/ person) or you can take private auto to Sec 62 ( fare: 100 rs).
Rajiv Chowk to Noida City Centre


I hope you like this, so kindly comment below the post and do share your response. Thanks for reading :)

28 October, 2016

IAS SYLLABUS AND EXAM PATTERN



I hope you like this, so kindly comment below the post and do share your response. Thanks for reading :)

26 October, 2016

Reasoning Puzzles (Study Notes)

Today we’ll discuss about Puzzle. This topic is can fetch you marks easily but you need to know the right concepts and types of questions to practice. 

In banking exams Puzzle questions can be asked in itself or Data Sufficiency. Usually 10-12 questions can be asked from this topic, thus it can fetch you easy marks with right practice.

Introduction: From practical experience and the general trends, it can be asserted that the question on “puzzle” can be generally classified into the following types of problems:-

1. Simple problems of categorization

2. Arrangement problems

3. Comparison Problems

4. Blood Relations

5. Blood Relations with professions

6. Conditional selection

7. Miscellaneous problems

In the puzzles, you shall be given fast-working and efficient methods for all the types of problems above.

Preliminary steps 

1. First of all, take a quick glance at the question. This would need not more than a couple of seconds.

2. After performing this step you would develop a general idea as to what the general theme of the problem is.

3. Next determine the usefulness of each of the information and classify them accordingly into “actual information” or “useful secondary information” or Negative information as the case may be.

This can be one in the following way: 

(A) Useful secondary information: Usually the first couple of sentence of the given data are such that they give you some basic information that is essential to give you the general idea of the situation. These can be classified as useful secondary information.

(B) Actual information: Whatever remains after putting aside the useful secondary information can be categorized as actual information. While trying to solve a problem, one should begin with the actual information while the useful secondary information should be borne in mind.

(c) Negative Information: A part of the actual information may consist of negative sentences or negative information. A negative information does not inform us anything exactly but it gives a chance to eliminate a possibility. Sentences like “B is not the mother of A” or “H is not a hill-station” are called negative information.

(1) Simple problems of categorization

The most simple type of problems in this lesson falls under this category where you would be supposed to analyse the given data and simply place different items in different categories according to the given information.

Example (i): There are six cities A, B, C, D, E and F and they belong to atleast one of the types of places i.e. Historical, Industrial and Hill station. B is not an industrial area. C and F belongs to all types of places. E is both industrial and Hill station. A is not a hill station. B and E are not historical places. D is not an industrial city. A and D are not historical cities. A and B are not alike.

Solution:

(Here since A is not a hill station, we put a cross under a column and infront of Hill station Row, this would reduce the number of choices for us. (similarly for all the other options)

Example (ii) Four friends Ankit, Amit, Akash and Ajay went to four different cities Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad and Nagpur for interview in four different companies TCS, Wipro, IBM and HCL. But not in the same order. 

Ankit was not invited by TCS. Amit did not go to Hyderabad and was not invited by IBM and TCS. IBM conducted in Nagpur. Akash went to Mumbai. Ankit did not go to Nagpur and was not invited by HCL. 

(2)Arrangement problems: In this type of questions, the problems is essentially of arranging a group of people, objects etc. According to the given specifications. Arrangement problems can be of two types (i) Linear arrangement and (ii) Circular Arrangement. 

The questions of this type are also referred to as “Seating Arrangement

Example: Six persons A, B, C, D, E and F are seating in two rows, three in each. 

E is not at the end of any row. 

D is second to the left of F.

C, the neighbour of E, is sitting diagonally opposite to D. 

B is the neighbour of F. 

Solutions:  

(3) Problem on Comparison: In these questions a comparison of different objects or persons have to be made and conclusions have to be arrived on the basis of comparison. 

Comparison can be made: 

(i) Comparison of heights 

(ii) Comparison of marks 

(iii) Comparison of age, etc.

You may use the following symbols for comparison: 

Example: Among four friends A, B, C and D. A is taller than, who is shorter than D. D is not the tallest and A is shorter than D.

Solutions: C > D > A > B or  C

                D

                A

                B

(Tallest to shortest, from above to below) 

(4) Problems on Blood Relations: Problems of this type involve analysis of certain blood relations and then inferring on the basis of the given information. 

Example: All the six members of a family A, B C, D, E and F are travelling together. B is the son of C but C is not the mother of B. A and C are a married couple. E is the brother of C. D is the daughter of A. F is the brother of B. 

Solutions: 

(5) Problems on Blood Relations with professions: These problems are very much similar to the problems on Blood Relations. Only difference is that in these questions another dimension is added. The professions of various family members are also incorporated into the data to make it complex and confusing. 

Example: There is a group of six persons A, B, C, D, E and F in a family. They are psychologist, Manager, Lawyer, Jeweller, Doctor and Engineer. 

(i) The doctor is the grandfather of F, who is a psychologist 

(ii) The manager, D is married to A. 

(iii) C, the Jeweller, is married to the lawyer. 

(iv) B is the mother of F and E.

(v) There are two married couples in the family. 

Solutions: 

(6) Problems on conditional selection: In this type of questions, a group of objects or persons have to be selected from a given longer group, according to some given restrictions. 

Example: Five friends P, Q, R, S and T travelled to five different cities of Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi, Bengaluru and Hyderabad by different modes of transport of Bus, Train, Aeroplane, Car and Boat from Mumbai. But not necessary in the same order. 

(a) The person who travelled to Delhi did not travel by Boat. 

(b) R went to Bengaluru by car and Q went to Kolkata by Aeroplane

(c) S travelled by Boat whereas T travelled by train. 

(d) Mumbai is not connected by Bus to Delhi and Chennai. 

(7) Miscellaneous Problems: Till now we have covered different types of puzzles. But in miscellaneous problems all types are covered. 

Example: There are five persons P, Q, R, S and T. One is a football, one is a chess player and one is a hockey player. P and S are unmarried ladies and do not participate in any game. None of the ladies plays chess or Football. There is a married couple in which T is the husband. Q is the brother of R and is neither a chess player nor a hockey player.

Solutions: 

Here, T and R are married couple. Where, T is husband and R is wife. 

Points to Remember

(1) In puzzles, first of all collect all the direct information.

(2) And they should be arranged in tabular format.

(3) After that point out all the negative information and mark it in your table according to given information.

(4) Other facts can be find out from the indirect information.

(5) The most important part is that in some condition there will be more than one possibility. 

(6) So, according to possibilities arrange them in the different tables.

(7) Reject all the tables which violates other information in puzzles.

(8) By following this process you can find the correct solutions.

(9) Puzzle are always tricky so, take care of every words and sentence. 

(10) By following this approach, you will be able to solve the puzzle with good accuracy and speed. 

24 October, 2016

United Nation : It's your world

UN (United Nation) is an intergovernmental organization ,established to promote the peace and harmony in the world and act as an intermediator to help the nations to resolve their disputes with negotiations. The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on 1st January 1942, during the Second World War. It is currently made up of 193 Member States.

The mission and work of the United Nations are guided by the purposes and principles contained in its founding Charter. 2015 marked the 70th anniversary of the United Nations.

History of United Nation :

In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944.

The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.

The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.

The United Nations can take action on the issues confronting humanity in the 21st century, such as peace and security, climate change, sustainable development, human rights, disarmament, terrorism, humanitarian and health emergencies, gender equality, governance, food production, and more.

The UN also provides a forum for its members to express their views in the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and other bodies and committees. By enabling dialogue between its members, and by hosting negotiations, the Organization has become a mechanism for governments to find areas of agreement and solve problems together.

The headquarters of the United Nations is a complex in New York City designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer. The complex has served as the official headquarters of the United Nations since its completion in 1952.

Composition of UN Leaders

Secretary‑General                     Ban Ki-Moon

Deputy Secretary-General          Jan Eliasson

General Assembly President       Peter Thomson (diplomat)

Economic and Social Council      Frederick Musiiwa Makamure Shava

President

Security Council President          Vitaly Churkin

Former Portugal Prime Minister António Guterres is on the verge of being appointed as the next Secretary-General of the United Nations after winning polls of elections. Guterres received the most votes in favour, and none of the five permanent Security Council members exercised their veto right in the event of being opposed to the election of the Portuguese. The former Socialist Party leader and previous head of the UNHCR had won each of the previous five ballots to replace Ban-Ki Moon, whose second and final five-year term comes to an end in December.

Programmes and Funds

UNDP

The United Nations Development Programme works in nearly 170 countries and territories, helping to eradicate poverty, reduce inequalities and build resilience so countries can sustain progress. As the UN’s development agency, UNDP plays a critical role in helping countries achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

UNICEF

The United Nations Children's Fund provides long-term humanitarian and development assistance to children and mothers.

UNHCR

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees – UNHCR protects refugees worldwide and facilitates their return home or resettlement.

WFP

The World Food Programme aims to eradicate hunger and malnutrition.  It is the world’s largest humanitarian agency. Every year, the programme feeds almost 80 million people in around 75 countries.

UNODC

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime – UNODC helps Member States fight drugs, crime, and terrorism.

UNFPA

The United Nations Population Fund – UNFPA is the lead UN agency for delivering a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every birth is safe, and every young person's potential is fulfilled.

UNCTAD

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development is the United Nations body responsible for dealing with development issues, particularly international trade – the main driver of development.

UNEP

The United Nations Environment Programme established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment.

UNRWA

The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees has contributed to the welfare and human development of four generations of Palestine refugees. It’s services encompass education, health care, relief and social services, camp infrastructure and improvement, microfinance and emergency assistance, including in times of armed conflict.  It reports only to the UN General Assembly.

UN Women

UN Women merges and builds on the important work of four previously distinct parts of the UN system, which focus exclusively on gender equality and women’s empowerment.

UN-Habitat

The mission of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme is to promote socially and environmentally sustainable human settlements development and the achievement of adequate shelter for all.

Main Organs

The UN's Chief Administrative Officer is the Secretary-General. The UN system, also known unofficially as the "UN family", is made up of the UN itself and many affiliated programmes, funds, and specialized agencies, all with their own membership, leadership, and budget.  The programmes and funds are financed through voluntary rather than assessed contributions. The Specialized Agencies are independent international organizations funded by both voluntary and assessed contributions. The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat.  All were established in 1945 when the UN was founded.

General Assembly

The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN. All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation.  Each year, in September, the full UN membership meets in the General Assembly Hall in New York for the annual General Assembly session, and general debate, which many heads of state attend and address. Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. Decisions on other questions are by simple majority.  The General Assembly, each year, elects a GA President to serve a one-year term of office.

Security Council

The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the UN Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security.  It has 15 Members (5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members). Each Member has one vote. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions. The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression. It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security.  The Security Council has a Presidency, which rotates, and changes, every month.

Economic and Social Council

The Economic and Social Council is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as implementation of internationally agreed development goals. It serves as the central mechanism for activities of the UN system and its specialized agencies in the economic, social and environmental fields, supervising subsidiary and expert bodies.  It has 54 Members, elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. It is the United Nations’ central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development.

Trusteeship Council

The Trusteeship Council was established in 1945 by the UN Charter, under Chapter XIII, to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories that had been placed under the administration of seven Member States, and ensure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government and independence. By 1994, all Trust Territories had attained self-government or independence.  The Trusteeship Council suspended operation on 1 November 1994. By a resolution adopted on 25 May 1994, the Council amended its rules of procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as occasion required -- by its decision or the decision of its President, or at the request of a majority of its members or the General Assembly or the Security Council.

International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Its seat is at the Peace Palace in the Hague (Netherlands). It is the only one of the six principal organs of the United Nations not located in New York (United States of America). The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.

Secretariat

The Secretariat comprises the Secretary-General and tens of thousands of international UN staff members who carry out the day-to-day work of the UN as mandated by the General Assembly and the Organization's other principal organs.  The Secretary-General is chief administrative officer of the Organization, appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable term. UN staff members are recruited internationally and locally, and work in duty stations and on peacekeeping missions all around the world.  But serving the cause of peace in a violent world is a dangerous occupation. Since the founding of the United Nations, hundreds of brave men and women have given their lives in its service.

UN Day marks the anniversary of the entry into force in 1945 of the UN Charter. With the ratification of this founding document by the majority of its signatories, including the five permanent members of the Security Council, the United Nations officially came into being.

24 October has been celebrated as United Nations Day since 1948. In 1971, the United Nations General Assembly recommended that the day be observed by Member States as a public holiday. This year's UN Day will be used to highlight concrete actions people can take to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. A concert organised every year to celebrate and reflect on the work of the UN through the universal language of music, Traditional Music Orchestra.

The UN has designated 2016 as the “International Year of Pulses” (IYP 2016) with the following themes:

A. Food Security, Nutrition, and Innovation

B. Creating Awareness and Sustainabilty

C. Market Access

D.Productivity and Environmental Sustainability

UN will celebrate 2017 as International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development.

United Nation is the result of conflicts between nations which ultimately formed to protect the mankind and promote humanity in the world. War or disputes is not the solution of any problem , always humanity suffers. Introduction of UN nation and its various programs maintain coordination among nations and unite the countries as a single unit. Valiant efforts of different organizations of UN are incredible and whole world salutes all those persons who are working  directly and indirectly for the betterment of Mankind.

Quant Study Notes: Probability

Dear Readers,

Today we’ll discuss about Probability. This topic is can fetch you marks easily but you need to know the right concepts and types of questions to practice.

All about Probability

Probability

Probability theory deals in random events. The central objects of probability theory are random variables, and events.

Event is generally defined as outcome of an experiment. Events can be classified as deterministic or probabilistic (random).

Deterministic Event

When an experiment is repeated under homogeneous conditions and it produces the same results, then the experiment is known as deterministic experiment. 

For example if a car runs at a speed of 50 km/hr under uninterrupted condition it will reach a place 100 km distant in 2 hr.

Random or Probabilistic Event

An experiment when repeated under identical condition does not produce the same result every time but out come is one of the several possible out comes, then such an experiment is known as a probabilistic experiment or a random experiment and these events are known as random events.  

For example if it is raining today. It may not rain tomorrow. If a coin is tossed, outcome may be a head or tail.

Sample Space

The sample space or universal sample space, often denoted S or U (for “universe”), of an experiment or random trial is the set of all possible outcomes.

Independent Events

If one event does not have any effect on other, then these events are known as independent events. If A and B are independent events then,

Example: A man throws two identical unbiased die. If he gets 3 on the first dice or an even number on the second, he wins. Find the probability that the man wins.

Solution: A = Event of getting 3 on the first dice and B = Event of getting an even number on the second dice

Conditional Probability

A conditional probability is the probability of an event given that another event has occurred. Suppose a card is randomly drawn from the deck of 52 cards and it is found a red card, the probability of finding that this card is a KING, is an example of conditional probability.

If event E2 has occurred already then probability of occurrence of E1 is denoted by

Example: A number is selected randomly from the set of numbers ranging from 1 to 100 number is found to be a multiple of 3. Find the probability that it’s a multiple of 7 also.

Solution: Method 1: Sample space S = {1, 2, 3………..100}

Given that the selected number is a multiple of 3, hence conditional sample space S_1 = {3, 6,………99}.

Now the number should be a multiple of 3 as well as 7, hence it must be a multiple of 21. There are 4 such numbers: 21, 42, 63 and 84.

Required sample space S_2 = {21, 42, 63, 84}

Probability = S2/S1 =4/33

Method 2: Suppose E2 is the event that number is a multiple of 3 and E1 is the event that number is a multiple of 7, then

19 October, 2016

Reasoning Study Notes: Seating Arrangement

Dear Readers,

Today we’ll discuss about Seating Arrangement. This topic is can fetch you marks easily but you need to know the right concepts and types of questions to practice. 

In banking exams Seating Arrangement questions can be asked in itself or Data Sufficiency. Usually 10-12 questions can be asked from this topic, thus it can fetch you easy marks with right practice.

Introduction

⇒ In seating arrangement, we are generally asked to arrange a group of people according to the given conditions. They may have to be seated around a table, the table could be of any shape-circular, square, rectangular, pentagonal or any other. To solve seating arrangement problems on the basis of the information given in the equation.

⇒ It is one of the important part of the reasoning section for any competitive exam (specially Bank PO). In this part, questions are based on set of information containing set of conditions which gives hidden information followed by set of questions.

⇒ These type of questions judge the ability of a candidates to analyze the information and solve the questions by the help of pictorial figures.

CONCEPTS:

☞ Linear arrangement: - In this arrangement, there can be single row or parallel rows facing each other or opposite.

(i) 

(Directions if the people are facing north)

(ii) 

(Directions if the people are facing South)

(iii)  

(Directions if the people are seating parallel to each other facing South and North)

☞ Example: A, B, C, D, E, F and G are sitting in a row facing the North.

F is to the immediate right of E.

E is 4th to the right of G.

C is neighbor of B and D.

person who is third to the left of D is at one of the ends.

☞ Circular Arrangement: In this Arrangement, people are sitting around a circle facing towards or outside the centre.

(i) 

(ii) 

(iii) 

☞ Example: Abraham, Bittu, chris, Dilip, Ela, Fan, Gautam and Henry are sitting around a circle facing towards the centre. Dilip is second to the left of Fan and third to the right of Henry. Abraham is second to the right of Fan and immediate neighbor of Henry. Chris is second to the right of Bittu and Fan is third to the right of Bittu. Gautam is not an immediate neighbor of Fan.

☞ Rectangular/square Arrangement: In this Arrangement, people are sitting around a rectangle or square facing towards or outside the centre.

(i)

(ii)

 

(iii)

(People sitting at middle of the side, facing the centre and people sitting at edge/corner facing outside the centre)

☞ Example: Eight family members Dhruv, Garima, Avinash, Varsha, Aakash, Deepti, Charu and Moksh are sitting around a square table in such a way that two persons sit on each of the four sides of the table facing the centre. Members sitting on opposite sides are exactly facing opposite to each other.

(i) Aakash and Garima are exactly opposite to each other.

(ii) Deepti is immediately right to Garima.

(iii) Dhruv and Moksh are sitting on the same side.

(iv) Moksh is exactly opposite of Avinash, who is to the immediate left of Varsha.

(v) Dhruv is towards right of deepti.

☞ Single Dimensions: These are relatively straight forward questions. In these type, information  are arranged by following a kind of symmetry.

☞ Multi Dimensions: These type of questions are complex in nature. In these different information of same person are given i.e. their sex, city professions, marriage etc.

Important points to be noted during solving the questions:

☞ Step I: The data given in such questions specify the positions of some or all the individuals in arrangement. The positions are specified through conditions involving specified persons sitting (or not sitting) opposite each other or a particular person sitting to the right of left of another person etc.

☞ Step II: Once you read the data, first draw the shape (Circle, square, rectangle, pentagaon, etc) specified in the data and then mark the slots (empty spaces) in the sitting arrangement.

☞ Step III: Using all definite information, fill up as many slots (empty places) as possible. Means always be careful to choose the correct starting point. Those information which are (100%) confirm should be taken first.

☞ Step IV: Never assume anything in the questions.

☞ Step V: In case, if information cannot be use, mark that information and use them, later when the problems calls for it.

☞ Step VI: Now, move on the comparative information. Taking comparative information and consider all possibilities and choose the possibility which does not violate any condition.

☞ Step VII: Be careful with certain words like “not”, “only”, “who”, “and”.

☞ Step VIII:  Some gender defining terms are like “him”, “her”, “he”, “she” will help you decode the information.

Some specific type of statements:

☞ A is between B and C

⇒ In this case there are two possibilities

☞  A, who is 3rd to the left of B

 ☞ A, who is third to the right of B

☞ B is sitting to the immediate left of A, who is sitting to the immediate left of C.

 

☞ B, who is sitting to the immediate left of A and to the immediate right of C. 

☞ B and C are adjacent of A:-

 In this case there are two possibilities

An example of Seating Arrangement with Blood Relation:

☞ Example: J, P, Q, R, S, T, U and V are four married couples sitting in a circle facing the centre, the profession of the males within the group are lecturer, lawyer, doctor and scientist. Among the males, only R (the lawyer) and V (the scientist) are sitting together. Each man is seated besides his wife.

U the wife of the lecturer is seated second to the right of V. T is seated between U and V. P is the wife of the doctor. Q is not the doctor and imidiate neighbour of doctor. S is a male.

Important points to Remember:

☞ (1) The information like “A and B are sitting farthest from each other “or” A and B sit across the table” imply that A and B sit opposite to each other.

☞ (2) Go “Anticlockwise” if anybody’s right has to be located, and go “Clockwise” if somebody’s left has to be located.

☞ (3) Sometimes Questions demand a clear sense of direction, so you have to be well aware with the directional facts.

☞ (4) There shouldn’t be any confusion about relation and generation tree.

☞ (5) Sometimes in the seating Arrangement Geometry rules also applicable.

☞ Example: Ashok is 90° Right of Seema, who is 45° right of Ruchi