Showing posts with label competitive exams. Show all posts
Showing posts with label competitive exams. Show all posts

24 June, 2017

GA Study Notes On Cement Manufacturing

Manufacturing of Cement

Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments.The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.It was discovered by an English Mason, Joseph Aspdin in 1824. He called it Portland cement because he thought that it resembled the limestone found in Portland.

Approximate Composition of Portland cement
Calcium oxide (CaO) 60-70%
Silica (SiO2) 20-25%

Alumina (Al2O3) 5-10%

Ferric oxide (Fe2O3 )         2-3%

Raw materials are:

Limestone -  (provides lime), Clay -  (provides alumina and silica), Gypsum - (reduces the setting time of cement).

For a good quality cement, the ratio of silica (SiO) to alumina Al2O3) should be between 2.5 and 4 and the ratio of lime (CaO) to the total of the oxides of silicon (SiO2) aluminium (Al2O3) and iron (Fe2O3) should be as close as possible to 2.

The raw materials for the manufacture of cement are limestone and clay. When clay and lime are strongly heated together they fuse and react to form ‘cement clinker’. This clinker is mixed with 2-3% by weight of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) to form cement.Thus important ingredients present in Portland cement are dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) 26%, tricalciumsilicate (Ca3SiO5) 51% and tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al2O6)11%.Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand, and water. It is used for plastering walls and binding bricks and stones.Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, gravel or small pieces of stone and water. It is used for the construction of floors.RCC - The structure having iron rods embedded in wet concrete, is known as reinforced concrete. 

Setting of Cement: When mixed with water, the setting of cement takes place to give a hard mass. This is due to the hydration of the molecules of the constituents and their rearrangement. The purpose of adding gypsum is only to slow down the process of setting of the cement so that it gets sufficiently
hardened.It is an exothermic process, therefore cement structures have to be cooled up to 7 days by sprinkling water.

Uses: Cement has become a commodity of national necessity for any country next to iron and steel. It is used in concrete and reinforced concrete, in plastering and in the construction of bridges, dams, and buildings.

Computer Study Notes: History and Generation of Computers

History and Generations is an important chapter of Computer Awareness for Bank Exams. Computer awareness is a section in upcoming NICL AO Mains and it is also a section in the mains examination of IBPS RRB, IBPS PO and IBPS Clerk exams. Last year many questions in IBPS Examination were from this topic History and Generations, so aspirants must also prepare this along with other topics. You can find more study notes on computer terms asked in recent bank exams and start your preparation.

1. In 1822, Charles Babbage conceptualized and began developing the Difference Engine, considered to be the first automatic computing machine.

2. Then after almost a decade, Charles Babbage proposed the first general mechanical computer, the Analytical Engine. The Analytical Engine contained an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), basic flow control, and integrated memory concept and is the first general-purpose computer.

3. In 1946, ENIAC- Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer was the first electronic general-purpose computer. It was the first large-scale computer to run at electronic speed without being slowed by any mechanical parts. And it was invented by J.Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly. 

4. Douglas Engelbart invented the first computer mouse.

5. First computer with RAM - MIT introduces the Whirlwind machine, a revolutionary computer that was the first digital computer with magnetic core RAM and real-time graphics.

6. The first minicomputer - In 1960 Digital Equipment Corporation released its first of many PDP computers the PDP-1.

7. The first laptop - First Laptop was introduced in 1981 by Adom Osborne and the company “EPSON” manufactured first Laptop.

The following table categorises generations of computers and other important factors associated with the generations. 

22 March, 2017

Important Ancient Books on Science and Medicine For SSC CGL EXAM

ATHARVAVEDA (1000 BCE) Treatise on health, longevity, and curative treatment. Hygiene, dietetics, and beneficial effects of milk have also been elaborately dealt with.

BHELA SAMHITA (800 BCE) A codification of medicine scattered in the Vedas.  Atreya is known as the writer of Bhela Samhita

AGNIVESA SAMHITA (700 BCE) A codification of medicine by Agnivesa (a disciple of Atreya - founder of Ayurveda).  

KASHYAP SAMHITA (600 BCE) Deals with paediatrics.

CHIVARAVASTU (500 BCE) Mentions the court physician of Bimbisara (King of Magadha) as a marvelous physician and surgeon. Describes difficult surgical operations e.g. opening of the brain and eye surgery. 

HIPPOCRATIC OATH (460 TO 370 BCE) Hippocrates is considered to be the father of western medicine. The Oath is thought to have been written by the Greek physician Hippocrates. In some medical colleges around the world this oath is taken by graduating doctors. 

HUANGDI NEICHING (450 BCE) The first book on medicine in China. 

CHARAKA SAMHITA (100 CE) A classical exposition of Indian medicine. It deals with almost all branches of medicine. 

CELSUS (100 TO 200 CE) A treatise on medicine and surgery from Alexandria and Rome.

SUSRUTA SAMHITA (200 TO 300 CE) A treatise on Ayurveda like the Charaka Samhita. Susruta is described as a disciple of Dhanwantari. 

VAGHATA (500 TO 600 CE) A concise and scientific exposition of Ayurveda in verse from. It is distinguished by its knowledge of chemical reactions and laboratory processes etc.

VEDUKUNTA (600 TO 750 CE) A tratise on the rasa chikitsa system of ancient medicine, which considers mercury as the king of all medicines. It explains various preparations of mercury and other metals, alloys, metallic compounds, salts, and sulphur. 

MADHAVACHARAYA (700 TO 800 CE) A  compilation from earlier works of Agnivesa, Charaka, Susruta, and Vaghata and is famous all over India as the best treatise on Ayurveda and diagnosis of disease. 

Important Newspapers for Governments Exam

1. Al-Ahram - Egypt 

2. Izvestia - Russia 

3. The Dawn - Pakistan 

4. Daily News - USA

5. Daily Telegraph - UK

6. Aftonbladet - Sweden 

7. The Daily Mirror - UK

8. The Times - UK

9. The Guardian - UK

10. New Statesman - UK

11. New York Times - USA

12. Pakistan Times - Pakistan 

13. Pravda - Russia 

14. People’s Daily - China 

15. Merdeka - Indonesia 

16. Le Monde - France 

17. Wall Street Journal - USA

18. Clarin - Argentina 

19. The Age - Australia 

20. Gulf Daily News - Bahrain 

21. Correio Braziliense - Brazil 

22. Chronical-Herald - Canada 

23. China Daily - China 

24. Middle East times - Egypt 

25. Courier International - Germany 

26. The Jakarta Post - Indonesia 

27. Tehran Times - Iran 

28. Globes - Israel 

29. La Repubblica - Italy 

30. Asahi Shimbun - Japan 

31. El Universal - Mexico 

32. Gazeta Wyborcza - Poland 

33. O’Independente - Portugal 

34. Gulf Times - Qatar 

35. Gazeta - Russia 

36. Politika - Serbia 

37. El Mundo - Spain 

38. Aksam - Turkey  

26 February, 2017

Important Trophies and Associated Games (Part-II) For All Competitive Exam

Important Trophies and Associated Games 

Presidents Cup: Football

Prince of Wales Cup: Golf (England)

Raiffeisen Grand Prix Title: Tennis

RCA Championship Title: Tennis

Rogers Cup: Tennis

Ryder Cup: Golf (England)

Schneider Cup: Seaplane Race (England)

Swaythling Cup: World Table Tennis (men)

Thailand Open: Tennis

Thomas Cup: World Badminton (men)  

Tunku Abdul Rahman Cup: Asian Badminton

U Thant Cup: Lawn Tennis

Uber Cup: World Badminton (women)

UEFA Cup: Football

US Open: Tennis (Grand Slam Tennis)

Virginia Long Corn Trophy: Boxing

Virginia Slam Championship: Tennis

Walker Cup: Golf (England)

WBA Title: Boxing

WBC crown: Boxing

Westchester Cup: Polo (England)  

Whiteman Cup: Tennis

Wightman Cup: Tennis (women: USA and England)

William Cup: Basketball

William Todd Memorial Trophy: Basketball

Wimbledon Trophy: Tennis

Wimbledon, French Open: Tennis (Grand Slam Tennis)

World Cup Championship: Boxing

World Heavyweight Championship: Boxing

WTA Championship: Tennis

WTA-ING Vysya Open: Tennis 

Important Trophies and Associated Games (Part-I) For All Competitive Exam

Important Trophies and Associated Games 

America’s cup: Yacht racing

Ashes series: Cricket (Australia-England)

Asia Cup: Cricket  (Asian countries)   

ATP Championship: Tennis

Australia Open: Tennis

Azar Cup: Polo

Azlan Shah Cup: Hockey  

Benson and Hedges Trophy: Cricket

Canadian Open: Tennis

Champions Trophy: Hockey

Champions League T-20: Cricket

ICC Champions Trophy: Cricket

Cincinnati Masters: Tennis  

Colombo Cup: Football (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Burma now Myanmar)

Corbillion Cup: World Table Tennis (women)

Davis Cup: Tennis

Derby: Horse Racing

Dubai Open: Tennis

Euro Cup or European Championship: Football

Evert Cup: Tennis

F.A. Cup: Football

Federation Cup: Tennis

FIFA Cup of World Cup: Football

French Open: Tennis

German Open: Tennis

Grand National: Horse Racing (Chase Race, England)

Hall of Fame Tennis Championship: Tennis

Heineken Open ATP Tour Event: Tennis

Hol Rar Trophy: Bridge

Hopman Cup: Tennis

Indian Premier League: Cricket

India Gandhi International Gold Cup: Hockey

Italian Open: Tennis

Jules Rimet Trophy: World Football (soccer)

King’s Cup: Air Races (England)

Korea Cup: Tennis

Mercedes-Benz Cup: Tennis

Merdeka: Football (Asian Cup)

Nasdaq-100 open: Tennis

Natwest Trophy: Cricket

Nordic Light Open: Tennis 

Study notes on "VITAMINS" (Part-II) for SSC CGL Pre 2017

VITAMIN A (Retinol)

SOURCE

Dairy products, cod liver oil,liver, dark green and yellow vegetables and fruits

FUNCTION

Maintains eye healthPromotes growth and development, maintains healthy bones and teethEnhances the protection and regeneration of cells and mucous membraneMaintains healthy respiratory and intestinal tractsMaintain healthy hair, nails and skin

SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY

Night blindness, dry eyesDry skinStomach discomfortPoor growthWeak bones and teeth

SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS

Dry, scaly, peeling, and itchy skin, rashHair lossPoor appetite, fatigueVomiting, stomach discomfortLiver injuryHeadache, bone painNervousness, irritability

VITAMIN B

VITAMIN B1 (Thymine)

SOURCE

sprouts, yeast

Desease

Beri-beri

VITAMIN B2 (Ryboflabin)

SOURCE

sprout, present in cow's milk(yellowish)

Desease

Cheilosis, ulceration

VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine)

FUNCTION

It is responsible for rememeber dreams.

SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY

Anaemia Nervousness, insomnia, depression Muscle cramps

VITAMIN C (Ascorbic acid)

SOURCE

Citrus fruits(orange,grapefruit,lemon),strawberry,black current,kiwi fruit, tomato, green leafy vegetables, green pepper

FUNCTION

Helps synthesize collagen; promotes the growth and repair of cells, gum, teeth, blood vessels and bonesHelps healing after operation and injuryHelps calcium and iron absorptionEnhances immunity

SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY

ScurvyGuminflammation and bleeding, fall of teethSusceptibility to skin bleeding, burst of capillary vesselsWeakness, fatigueBone pain, swollen and aching joints

SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS

Abdominal painDiarrheaKidney stone

In smokers and drinkers vitamin C is absent

Study notes on "VITAMINS" (Part-I) SSC CGL Pre 2017

Dear Students, SSC CGL 2017 Pre exam in scheduled in the month of June/July 2017. At SA, We are providing to you the NOTES ON GENERAL SCIENCE, these notes will help you build your basic understanding of all topics and you'll be able to score maximum marks in SSC CGL Pre exam. Study, Revise and Learn all these notes by heart. 

VITAMIN K (Phylloquinone)

SOURCE

Green leafy vegetables, soya beans. The human body can also produce Vitamin K through germs in the colon(part of small intestine).

FUNCTION

  • Helps blood clotting, prevent over bleeding
  • Maintains health of the liver

SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY

Uncontrol bleeding from wounds due to clotting difficulty

SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS

Can lead to liver damage

VITAMIN E (Tocopherol)=Beauty Vitamin

It is also known as Antisterility Vitamin.

SOURCE

Green leafy vegetables, whole-wheat cereals, nuts, sprouts, egg  yolk

FUNCTION

  • Maintains normal conditions of cells, and healthy skin and tissues
  • Protects red blood cells
  • Antioxidation
  • Enhance immunity

SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY

New born infants: haemolytic anaemia

Adults: weakness

SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS

  • Low thyroxine level
  • Fertility Desease
  • Headache, dizziness, fatigue
  • Stomach discomfort, poor appetite

VITAMIN D (Calciferol)=(Sunhine Vitamin)

SOURCE

Egg yolk, liver, cod liver oil, fish. Our skins also produces Vitamin D when exposed to sunlight

FUNCTION

  • Helps body absorb and utilize calcium and phosphorus, so as to maintain bones, teeth and brain healthy
  • Maintains normal calcium level in blood

SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY

  • Children: rickets
  • Adults: Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis

SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS

  • Calcified cartilage
  • High calcium level in the blood causes abnormal heart beat and damage to organs such as kidneys
  • Vomiting, diarrhea
  • Sore eyes
  • Itchy skin


09 February, 2017

Important government schemes For All Governments Exam

PRADHAN MANTRI AWAS YOJANA (PMAY)

Objective-PMAY & PMAY (Gramin) are launched to achieve Housing for All by 2022 Mission

Important Points
1. Construct two crore houses across the nation.
2. Central grant of Rs. one lakhs per house, on an average, will be available under the slum rehabilitation programme.

3. Program will be implemented into three phase April 2015 - March 2017, April 2017 - March 2019 and April 2019 - March 2022

NATIONAL PENSION SCHEME

Objective of this scheme is to provide retirement income to all the citizens

Important points
1. ELIGIBILITY-All citizens of India between the age of 18 and 60 years can join this plan.
2. NPS is administered by the PFRDA(Pension Fund Regulatory And Development Authority)
3. NPS is divided into  tier-I NPS account, Tier-ii NPS account, NPS - Swavalamban scheme
Tier I Account - Under this account, withdrawals are not allowed. It is solely meant for savings after the subscriber’s retirement.

Tier II Account - Under this account, a subscriber is free to make as many withdrawals as he or she likes at any time, similar to a regular savings account.

Swavalamban Account - In this account the Indian government contributes a sum of Rs 1,000 every year over the initial four years. The purpose of this account is to provide encouragement for workers of poor economic standing.

4. All existing members of the government's 'Swavalamban yojana ' will automatically be migrated to the Atal pension yojana. It will now replace the Swavalamban scheme

5. It provides a PRAN(permanent retirement account number)and it remains with the subscriber throughout his lifetime.

6. Flexible- NPS offers a range of investment options and choice of pension fund manager (pfms)


PRADHAN MANTRI MUDRA YOJANA(PMMY)

Full form of mudra -Mudra - Micro Units Development & Refinance Agency
Main aim of this scheme is To make youth job creators and not job seekers
This scheme help in  “fund the unfunded” by bringing such enterprises to the formal financial system and extending affordable credit to them

Important point
1. It enables a small borrower to borrow loan for non-farm income generating activities.
2. 3 types of loans to be allotted by MUDRA
(i) Shishu-covering loans up to 50,000/-
(ii) Kishor-covering loans above 50,000/- and up to 5 lakhs
(iii) Tarun-covering loans above 5 lakhs and up to 10 lakhs
3.There is no subsidy for the loan given under PMMY.

RASHTRIYA UCHCHATAR SHIKSHA ABHIYAN (RUSA)

It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), launched in 2013 aims at providing strategic funding to eligible state higher educational institutions and funding in  the ratio of 60:40 for general category States, 90:10 for special category states and 100% for union territories

Its main objective is To improve access, equity and quality in higher education through planned development of higher education at the state level and Improve the overall quality of state institutions

Important Point
1. 
RUSA would create new universities through upgradation of existing autonomous colleges and conversion of colleges in a cluster. It would create new model degree colleges, new professional colleges and provide infrastructural support to universities and colleges.

2. It is proposed to improve the gross enrolment ratio from 19% at present to 30% by 2020.

SANSAD ADARSH GRAM YOJANA (SAANJHI)

This scheme was launched on 11th October, 2014 - Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan Ji’s birth anniversary – at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi. this scheme is Inspired by the principles and values of Mahatma Gandhi

The Main aim of this scheme is to develop three Adarsh grams (model villages) by march 2019, by each MP, of which one would be achieved by 2016. after that five such Adarsh grams (one per year) will be selected and developed by 2024.

Important Point
1.
 Members of parliament (MPs) are the pivots this scheme will run on. Gram Panchayat would be the basic unit for development. It will have a population of 3000-5000 in plain areas and 1000-3000 in hilly, tribal and difficult areas.

2.There are no new funds and fund can be raised from existing scheme

MGNREGA-MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT

The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (NREGA) is a social security scheme that aims at providing employment and livelihood to rural labourers in the country.
It was later renamed the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA).

The objective of this scheme is to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

Important Point
1. 
Strong social safety net for the vulnerable groups

2.  If a person does not get employment within 15 days of registration, he/she becomes eligible for an unemployment allowance.

3.  Sustainable development of an agricultural economy-employment on works that address drought, deforestation and soil erosion, water and soil conservation, afforestation and land development works

4.  At least one-third beneficiaries shall be women

04 February, 2017

Public Finance (Part-II)

PUBLIC FINANCE

A. Tax revenue – It consists of the proceeds of taxes & other duties levied by the government. The various taxes that are imposed by a government can be categorised into two groups.

1. Direct Taxes

2. Indirect Taxes

1. Direct taxes – Direct Taxes are those taxes which are paid by the same person on whom they have been imposed. Tax burden cannot be shifted on to others.

Example- Income Tax, wealth tax.

2. Indirect taxes – Those taxes whose burden (partial or whole) can be shifted.

Example- Excise duty.

Note- the Basis of classifying taxes into direct tax & Indirect tax is whether the burden of the tax is shiftable to others or not.

B. Non-Tax revenue – It includes receipts from sources other than taxes. The main sources of non-tax revenues are -Interest, Profits & dividends, Fees & fines, Special assessment, Gifts & grants, Escheats

Capital receipts- Capital receipts are defined as any receipt of the government which either creates a liability or leads to the reduction in assets. Capital receipts include the following 3 items.

Recovery of loans

Disinvestment

Small savings

Budget expenditure – It refers to the estimated expenditure of the government under various heads. In India, it is classified into two categories.

1. Revenue expenditure

2. Capital expenditure

Revenue Expenditure – It refers to all those expenditures of the government which

do not result in a creation of physical or financial assets.

do not cause any reduction in liability of the government.

It relates to those expenses incurred for the normal functioning of the Government departments & provision of various services, interest payments on debt incurred by government & grants given to state government & other parties.

Capital expenditure – An expenditure which either creates an Asset or reduces liability is called capital expenditure. It consists mainly of expenditure on Acquisition of Assets like land, buildings, machinery, equipment, investments in shares, etc. & loans and advances granted by the central government to state & union territory government, government companies, corporation & other parties.

Other classifications of Public Expenditure:- 

1. Plan Expenditure and Non-plan expenditure:-Public expenditure is classified as plan expenditure and non-plan expenditure. 

Plan expenditure- Plan expenditure refers to that expenditure which is provided in the budget to be incurred on the programmes. For example, expenditure on agriculture, power, communication, industry, transport, general economic and social services etc.

Non-plan expenditure- It refers to the government expenditure other than the expenditure related to the plan of the government. Such an expenditure is a must for every Country having planning or no planning e.g. expenditure on police, judiciary, military, expenditure on normal running of government departments, expenditure on relief measures for earthquake/flood victims. 

2. Developmental Expenditure and Non-Developmental Expenditure:- Public expenditure is also classified as development expenditure and non-development expenditure. 

Development expenditure- It refers to expenditure on activities which are directly related to the economic and social development of the country. This includes expenditure on education, agricultural and industrial development, rural development, social welfare, scientific research etc. Such expenditure it not a part of the essential functioning of the government. It directly contributes to the development of the economy. It adds to the flow of goods and services. 

Non-development expenditure- It refers to expenditure incurred on essential general services of the Government such expenditure is essential from the administrative point of view. Expenditure on police. Judiciary, defence, general administration, interest, payments tax collection, subsidies on food etc. fall under this category.

Public Finance (Part-I) 

PUBLIC FINANCE

Meaning of Budget – Government budget is an annual statement, showing the item-wise estimation of receipts & expenditure during a fiscal year.

Elements of Budget 
1. It is a statement that shows estimated receipts & estimated expenditure during a fiscal year.
2. It shows estimates of government receipts & expenditure during a fixed period generally in a year.
3. Budget requires the approval by the parliament.

Objectives of Government Budget 
1. Reallocation of resources
2. Redistribution of income & wealth 
3. Economic stability
4. Management of public Enterprises
5. Promotion of economic development

NOTE-In short, a budget is a powerful weapon in the hands of government through which it can affect the generation, distribution & spending of National Income.

Structure of the Budget – The components of budget can also be categorised according to receipts & expenditures. On this basis two broad components are as follows:-
A. Budget receipts
B. Budget expenditure

Budget receipts- It refers of estimated money receipts of the government from all sources during the fiscal year.
Budget receipts are classified as
1. Revenue receipts
2. Capital receipts

Revenue receipts- It refers to those receipts of the government which neither create a liability nor lead to reduction in assets.
For example- revenue from taxes is a revenue receipt as it does involve any corresponding liability for the government.
Tax is a unilateral (one-sided) compulsory payment by people to the government. Taxes do not have to be repaid by the government in future.

24 January, 2017

IMPORTANT NOTES ON CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY: UPSC

The Historical Background

Indianisation of the superior civil services became one of the major demands of the political movement, compelling the British Indian government to consider the setting up of a Public Service Commission for recruitment of candidates to its services in the Union territory. The first Public Service Commission was set up on 1 October 1926. However, its

limited advisory functions failed to satisfy the people’s aspirations and the continued stress on this aspect by the leaders of our freedom movement resulted in the setting up of the Federal Public Service Commission under the Government of India Act, 1935. Under this Act, for the first time, provision was also made for the formation of Public Service Commissions at the provincial level. The Constituent Assembly, after independence, saw the need for giving a secure and autonomous status to Public Service Commissions, both at the Federal and Provincial levels, for ensuring unbiased recruitment to civil services, as also for the protection of service interests. With the promulgation of the new Constitution for independent India on 26 January 1950, the Federal Public Service Commission was accorded a constitutional status as an autonomous entity and given the title UPSC.

The Structure of UPSC

The Chairman and other members of the UPSC are appointed by the President and they hold office for a term of 6 years from the date of appointment, or until they attain the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. They are independent of the Executive and legislature in the same manner as the judges of the Supreme Court.

Constitutional Provisions 

The UPSC has been established under Article 315 of the Constitution of India. The Commission consists of a Chairman and fixed number of members (generally 10) under Article 318. The terms and conditions of service of the Chairman and members of the Commission are governed by the UPSC (member) Regulations, 1969. It is generally 6 years. The Commission is serviced by a Secretariat headed by a Secretary with two Additional secretaries, a number of Joint Secretaries, Deputy Secretaries and other supporting staff. Under Article 317, the terms of UPSC’s Chairman and members is not determined by the executive department of the government of India,  Therefore they cannot be removed from their positions easily.Only under the special charge of corruption and dishonesty can members be removed by the president under Article 317 (1). Under 317 (2), the member can be removed if proven insolvent or mentally and physically unfit, and only President can remove him or her.Article 322, states that salaries of Chairman and members of UPSC are charged to the consolidated fund of India, and are not subject to the approval of the Parliament.  Functions of UPSC have enumerated under Article 320.

 Important article related to UPSC

Article-315. Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.Article-316. Appointment and term of office of members.Article-317. Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission.Article-318. Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission.Article-319. Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members.Article-320. Functions of Public Service Commissions.Article-321. Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.Article-322. Expenses of Public Service Commissions.Article-323. Reports of Public Service Commissions.

Independent and Neutral UPSC

To keep UPSC independent, neutral and impartial, the constitution has taken two precautionary measures. 

The government has to consult UPSC on employee appointments and other matters related to the employees If UPSC’s advice or recommendation to the government is not implemented, the government has to give an explanation to the parliament detailing the reasons for such non-acceptance. The government of India can appoint a few employees without UPSC’s recommendation, but that appointment will be temporary and for a period of 1 year only.

 Power of UPSC

UPSC’s most important powers are advisory in nature and it can advise the President and Governor of state on the following six domains:

 All matters relation to the appointment of civil servants.Evaluation of standards and efficiency of candidates for appointment, promotion or transfers of employees.All matters concerning discipline, behaviour and punctuality of employees of All India services.All affairs relating to demand and privileges to its employees under All India Civil Services and injured while on duty.On any payment or expense for any work of an employee of All India Services to be borne by the consolidated fund of India.Issues relating to discipline and punctuality in government functions are paying compensation to an employee, if there is a loss incurred by him due to negligence on part of the government, matters relating to punishment means of those employees and of all matters related to the interest of government employees working under the central government

22 January, 2017

ECONOMICS NOTES for SSC CHSL EXAM

Definition: A rise in the general level of price in an economy. That is sustained over time.

The opposite of Inflation in ‘deflation’.Inflation, in general, is just a price rise.When the general level of prices is falling over a period of time it is called deflation.The rate of inflation is measured on the basis of price indices which are of two kind WPI & CPIWPI - Wholesale Price IndexCPI - Consumer price Index

Rate of inflation (Year x)

In the index, the total weight is taken as 100 at particular year of the past i.e. Base year (Year of reference)Inflation is measured ‘point to point’. It means that the reference dates for the annual inflation are January to January of two consecutive years. This is similar for even weekly inflation.

Types of Inflation: Broadly there are 2 types of inflation.
(a) Demand - Pull Inflation:

A mismatch between demand & supply pulls up the price.Either demand increases over the same level of supply or the supply decreases the same level of demand.This is Keynesian idea.

(b) Cost - Push Inflation:-

An increase factor input costs (i.e. wage & raw materials) push up the prices.A price rise which is the result of the increase in the production cost is cost - push inflation.

A measure of check inflation:-
(1) Supply side: 

Govt may import.Govt may increase production.Govt may improve storage. Transportation, hoarding etc

(2) Cost side:

Govt may cut down production cost by giving tax breaks, cuts in duties etc.By adopting Better production process, technological Innovation etc.Increasing Income of people also helps in checking inflation.

(3) Other steps:

 Tighter monetary policies can be introduced by RBI, this might help in a short run.Increasing production with the help of best production practices is a long term solution.

Other types of inflation: In General there are 3 Broad Categories i.e.
(i) Low inflation:- 

 It is slow & predictable. Takes place in a longer period. The range of increase is usually in single digit. It is also called CREEPING INFLATION

(ii) Galloping Inflation:- 

It is very high inflationRange of increase is usually in double digit or triple digit It is also known as hopping inflation, jumping inflation & Running Runaway inflation. 

(iii) Hyper-Inflation:-

This type of inflation is large and Accelerating. (This might have annual rates in Millions or even Trillion.(Range of increase is very large but increase takes place in a very short span of time. The price shoots up overnight.

Over variants of inflation:-  
(i) Bottleneck inflation:-

This inflation takes place when supply falls drastically & the demand remains at the same level. Such situation arises due to supply ride accidents, hazards or Mismanagement.It is also known as ‘structural Inflation’It can be put Under ‘demand-pull inflation

(ii) Core inflation:-

This nomenclature is based on the inclusion or Exclusion of the good & services while calculating inflation.  In India, it was 1st time used in the financial year 2001-02. In India, it means inflation of Manufactured goods. 

14 January, 2017

STATISTICS(basic concept) NOTES for RRB NTPC EXAM

The words ‘Statistics’ appears to have been derived from the latin word ‘status’ meaning a (political) state. In its origin, Statistic was simply the collect of data on different aspects of the life of the people.

Statistics deals with data collected for specific purposes. We can make decisions about the data by analysing and interpreting it.

Central line tendency

Mean: The mean or average of a number of observation is the sum of the value of all the observation divided by the total number of the observations.

It is denoted by the symbol,  read as x bar

Here n is a number of observation.

Example- people were asked about the time in a week they spend in doing social work in their community. They said 10, 7, 13, 20 and 15 hours respectively.Find the mean (or average) time in a week devoted by them in social work.

Sol. The mean =(Sum of all the observations)/(Total number of observations)

=(10 + 7 + 13 + 20 + 15)/5=65/5=13 

So, the time spent by these 5 people in doing social work is 13 hours in a week.

The median- the median is that value of the given number of observations, which divide it into exactly two parts.  when the data is arranged in ascending or decreasing order.

The median of ungrouped data is calculated as follows:

(i) When the number of observation (n) is odd, the median is the value of the ((n+1)/2)ith observation.    

Example: If n = 15, the value of the ((15+1)/2)ith i.e. the 8th observation will be median

(ii) When the number of observation (n) is even, the median is the mean of the (n/2)ith and (n/2+1)ith observations.

Example: If n = 16 the mean of the value of the (16/2)ith and (16/2+1)ith observations. 

Example: The height (in cm) of 9 students of a class follows.

155, 152, 160, 144, 145, 148, 150, 147,149

Find the median of the data

Sol. Arrange the data in ascending data

144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 155, 160

Since the number of students is 9, an odd number.

Median is the height of the   = 5th student which is 149 cm

So, median = 149 cm

 Modes: The mode is that value of the observation which occurs most frequently i.e. an observation with the maximum frequency is called the mode.

Example: Find the mode of the following marks (out of 10) obtained by 20 students.

4, 6, 5, 9, 3, 2, 7, 7, 6, 5, 4, 9, 10, 10, 3, 4, 7, 6, 9, 9

Sol. We arrange this data in the following form:

2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 9, 9, 9, 9,10, 10

Here 9 occurs most frequently i.e. four times. So, the mode is 9.

04 January, 2017

GEOGRAPHY NOTES: Indian Agriculture For RRB NTPC EXAM and SSC CHSL EXAM

Green Revolution – I
Introduced in 1966 (Plan Holiday)
Father of Green Revolt – Dr. Norman Borlog
Father of Green Revolt – M. S. Swaminathan (In India)

Objectives: - Use of high yielding variety seeds, fertiliser, power and increase food productivity.
Green Revolt – Phase – I – Wheat 
Phase – II – Rice
Focus Area: - Punjab, Haryana, Western U.P.  

Green Revolution– II   concept by – Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
“Evergreen Revolution or Rainbow revolution”
Start in decade of 2000
Objective: - Promote agriculture a/c to climate condition and also promote organic farming and increase overall food security.
Focus crop: - Milk, egg, Meat, Vegetable → A/C to climatic condition
Focus Area: - All India

Organic farming: - No use/less use of fertiliser
- use bio fertiliser, like – Earthworm
- the concept is given by – Albert Howard (1930 – 40)

Zero farming: - up to 3-4 years. – Continuous use of organic fertiliser/ organic farming and due to this fertility of soil increase and After  some period, there will be no use of fertiliser

JHOOM CULTIVATION -

In this farming, after cutting one crop the land is left as it is for some years. Nothing is grown there. The weeds or bamboo which grow on that land are not pulled out. They are cut and burnt. The ash makes the land fertile. While burning, care is taken so that the fire does not spread to other parts of the forest. When the land is ready for farming it is lightly dug up, not ploughed. Seeds are dropped on it. In one farm different types of crops like maize, vegetables, chillies, rice can be grown.

Tribal society (Northeast region)

Consumption of NPK (Ideal) = 4 : 2 : 1
                                    ↓
                                 In India = 5.5 : 2.7 : 1 (used)
Net sawing Area (India) = 142 million Hectare → 39% Irrigated
Irrigation: Wells, tube well (60%) > Canal (27%) > Tank (13%)
Net Irrigated area: U.P. > M.P. > RJ
Irrigation Intensity: PB > U.P.
Tank Irrigation: AP > TN > UP
Well Irrigation: UP > PB > Bihar
Canal Irrigation: UP > RJ > HR

IRRIGATION PROJECT
1. Micro → Less than 2000 Hectare
2. Medium → 2000 – 5000 Hectare
3. Large → Above 5000 Hectare

Major crops in India
1. Rice:-
Monsoon/Tropical crop
Kharif
world – India (maximum Area – Sow – Rice)
Largest producer of rice in world – China
Second – India 

Breed:-
1. Samba, Kuruwai – Tamilnadu
2. Kamini – WB
3. Basmati – UP

National Rice Research Institute – Katak (Orissa)
Largest rice producer in India – WB
Bowl of rice – Chattisgarh (Per hectare productivity max.)
People of India – Maximum eating habit – Rice
Nellore District(AP) – Rice productive high
Highest fertiliser used – HP

2. Wheat:-
2nd largest food crop in India
Largest wheat producer of world – China
2nd largest wheat producer of world – India
Largest wheat producer in India – UP > PB > HR
export – Punjab
productivity – Punjab

Breed:-
1. Larma
2. Rajo
3. Sonal

LARGEST PRODUCER IN India
1. BARLEY ( U.P.)
2. BAJRA (RJ)
3. Maize (AP)
4. PULSES ( MP)
5. MUSTARD(RJ)
6. GROUNDNUT(GJ)
7. SUNFLOWER (KA)
8. SOYABEAN( MP))
9. COCONUT/SPICES (KERALA)
10. SUGARCANE (UP)
11. SUGAR (MH)
12. COTTON (GJ)
13. TEA (ASSAM)
14. COFFEE (KA)
15. RUBBER(KERALA)
16. ONION (MH)
17. JUTE (WB)

29 December, 2016

SSC - Sample Online Exam

Dear Students, SSC is going to conduct CHSL 2016 from 7th January 2017 to 5th February 2017. SSC has already issued the venue details of candidates. Soon, SSC will issue Admit cards also. Keep checking your respective regional websites for Admit Cards. 

SSC has also issued a Sample Online Exam for candidate's convenience and training for the online exam. You can check it on SSC official website. It's important to be familiar with the latest change in the pattern  of The SSC Computer Based Exam. 

SSC has taken a very good initiative by uploading a Sample Online Exam. Below, You'll find the link and a screenshot of the Sample form. All the candidates are advised to go through this Sample Online Exam and be exam ready. 

We wish you all the very best for your SSC CHSL Exam. 
 

 

 

CLICK HERE FOR THE LINK 

20 November, 2016

How to reach Akademia Online Test Centre, Dwarka

Hello Friends

Today I will tell you about common route to exam centre Akademia Online Test Centre, Dwarka.
First you have to reach Dwarka Mor Metro railway station, then you have to take e-rickshaw which will take 5 or 10 rupees to the exam centre.


I hope you like this, so kindly comment below the post and do share your response. Thanks for reading :)

03 November, 2016

बैंको के Headquarters के नाम याद रखने की Short Trick

A. याद रखने के लिए
यदि किसी बैंक के नाम में " Bank of India " आता है तो उसका मुख्यालय मुंबई होगा
.
BANK OF INDIA “ ==> -MUMBAI
1. BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
2. Central BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
3. Industrial Development BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
4. State BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
5. Union BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
6. Reserve BANK OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
7. Securities and Exchange BOARD OF INDIA ==> MUMBAI
8. Dena Bank - ==> MUMBAI (देना बैंक को छोड़ कर)
B. यदि किसी बैंक के नाम में " UNITED " आता है तो उसका मुख्यालय KOLKATA होगा.
9. UNITED Bank of India
10. UNITED Commercial Bank
11. Allahbad Bank
C. यदि किसी बैंक के नाम में " PUNJAB MAHILA " आता है तो उसका मुख्यालय DELHI होगा.
12. PUNJAB National Bank
13. PUNJAB & Sind Bank
14. Bharathiya MAHILA Bank
15. Oriental bank of commerce
D. यदि किसी बैंक के नाम में " INDIAN " आता है तो उसका मुख्यालय CHENNAI होगा.
16. INDIAN Overseas Bank
17. INDIAN Bank
E. यदि किसी बैंक के नाम में " VIJAY or CAN " आता है तो उसका मुख्यालय BENGALURU होगा.
18. VIJAYa Bank
19. CANara Bank
F. व्यक्तिगत बैंक (INDIVIDUAL BANKS)
19) ANDHRA BANK ==> HYDERABAD(CAPITAL OF ANDHRA PRADESH)
20) Bank of BARODA ==> BARODA/
VADODARA(GUJARAT)
21) Bank Of Maharashtra ==> PUNE (Maharashtra)
22) Corporation Bank ==> MANGALURU
23) Syndicate Bank ==> MANIPAL

31 October, 2016

ASEAN :One Vision One Identity One Community

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional grouping which promotes economic, political, and security cooperation among its members. It was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. 

The ASEAN Community is comprised of three pillars, the Political-Security Community, Economic Community and Socio-Cultural Community. ASEAN work with a motto of “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”. The group was expanded by adding 5 more nations which are Brunei Darussalam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. Cambodia was the last added member of the group in 1999.

Currently ASEAN has ten members :  

Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Lao PDR , Vietnam,  Myanmar and Cambodia.

ASEAN Headquarter : Jakarta, Indonesia

ASEAN was basically established in order to:

1. To promote the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavors in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations.

2. To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.

3. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields.

4. To provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities in the educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres.

5. To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilization of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, including the study of the problems of international commodity trade, the improvement of their transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of their peoples.

6.To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organizations with similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves.

In 1976 a Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia was signed by the ASEAN member states to adopt some of the fundamental principles:

1.Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations.

2.The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion.

3.Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another.

4.Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner.

The ASEAN Vision 2020, adopted by the ASEAN Leaders on the 30th Anniversary of ASEAN, agreed on a shared vision of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outward looking, living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caring societies.

The 28th and 29th Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit was held in Vientiane, Laos from 6th to 8th September 2016. Prime Minister of the Lao PDR H.E. Thongloun Sisoulith was Chairperson of the summit. The theme of the summit was “Turning Vision into Reality for a Dynamic ASEAN Community”.

ASEAN 2017 will be hosted by Philippines with a theme of :

“Partnering for change, engaging the world” – a reference to Duterte’s campaign slogan “change is coming.”

India - ASEAN Relation

For India ASEAN is a major boost for India’s look east policy and promoting its market to the eastern world. The ASEAN-India Free Trade Area has been completed with the entering into force of the ASEAN-India Agreements on Trade in Service and Investments on 1 July 2015. India is working with ASEAN group on different projects in the fields of Agriculture, Science & Technology, Space, Environment & Climate Change, Human Resource Development, Capacity Building, New and Renewable Energy, Tourism, People-to-People contacts and Connectivity etc.  The 8th edition of Delhi Dialogue is being hosted by the MEA in partnership with IDSA, FICCI and other select Indian and ASEAN partners on 17-19 February 2016 in New Delhi. DD VIII has 'ASEAN-India Relations: A New Paradigm' as its theme and includes an Inaugural Business Session, a Ministerial Session, and an Academic session.

For India ASEAN is not only important for the economic purpose but also a one of the platform from where India can counter the influence of china. China is growing at a rapid pace and coordination of china with Pakistan is really a great threat for the India so in order to counter the increasing pace of china ASEAN can play a crucial role for India. South china sea dispute with Philippines and involvement of Indian company for oil exploration in the south china sea can be seen as an important point with respect of India's increasing relation with some of the ASEAN members. India can be benefited with the involvement of ASEAN members through bilateral talks and proper utilization of International organizations.

29 October, 2016

How to reach Ion Digital Zone C Block Noida

Hello Friends,

It's always been adventure to find new place but sometimes it could be so frustrating too for people who are not aware about this place.

Today i will tell you about common path of iON Digital Zone iDZ 1 & 2, 30/7A, C Block, Sector 62, C Block, Phase 2, Industrial Area, Sector 62, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201309.
The path is simple and very easy.
Normal Day Ion Digital Noida


1. First reach to Noida City Centre and then take auto to C-Block, sector-62 to reach the centre. (Fare- 30 Rupees/-)
There are two big companies buildings- Samsung and Barclays.

2.From Noida Sec 15 either you can take sharing auto for sector 62 and get down near CSC ( You can tell auto driver to stop at CSC, Fare : 20 rs/ person) or you can take private auto to Sec 62 ( fare: 100 rs).
Rajiv Chowk to Noida City Centre


I hope you like this, so kindly comment below the post and do share your response. Thanks for reading :)