13 June, 2016

Handy Notes Banking : A Brief on Mutual Funds

What are Mutual Funds?

Mutual Fund is trusts which pool the savings of large number of investors and then reinvests those funds for earning profits and then distribute the dividend among the investors. In return for such services, Asset Management Companies charge small fees.   

Every Mutual Fund launches different schemes, each with a specific objective.   Investors who share the same objectives invests in that particular Scheme.   Each Mutual Fund Scheme is managed by a Fund Manager with the help of his team of professionals.

The mutual funds in India are governed by Association of Mutual Funds in India, the umbrella body for mutual funds, which is in turn governed by the Securities and Exchange Board of India.
A diagrammatic representation to understand the Cycle”:


Where does Mutual Funds usually invest their funds :

The Mutual Funds usually invest their funds in equities, bonds, debentures, call money etc., depending on the objectives and terms of scheme floated by MF.


What is NAV ? Define NAV :

NAV means Net Asset Value.  NAV is arrived at after deducting all liabilities (except unit capital) of the fund from the realisable value of all assets and dividing by number of units outstanding. Therefore,  NAV on a particular day reflects the realisable value that the investor will get for each unit if the scheme is liquidated on that date.   This NAV keeps on changing with the changes in the market rates of equity and bond markets.    Therefore, the investments in Mutual Funds is not risk free.


Some types of MF

Open ended funds are allowed to issue and redeem units any time during the life of the scheme, but close ended funds can not issue new units except in case of bonus or rights issue.   Therefore, unit capital of open ended funds can fluctuate on daily basis (as new investors may purchase fresh units), but that is not the case for close ended schemes.  


What is the difference between Mutual Funds and Hedge Funds:

Hedge Funds are the investment portfolios which are aggressively managed and uses advanced investment strategies, such as leveraged, long, short and derivative positions in both domestic and international markets with a goal of generating high returns .  In case of Hedged Funds, the number of investors is usually small and minimum investment required is large.   Moreover, they are more risky and generally the investor is not allowed to withdraw funds before a fixed tenure.


Various Entities of Mutual Funds:

1.       SPONSER:  Sponsor is the person  who establishes the mutual fund. It can be a group of people or a single person.

2.       TRUST: The Mutual Fund is constituted as a trust in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882 by the Sponsor. The trust deed is registered under the Indian Registration Act, 1908.

3.       TRUSTEE: Trustee is usually a company or a Board of Trustees. The main responsibility of the Trustee is to safeguard the interest of the unit holders and to ensure the interest of investors in accordance with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Mutual Funds) Regulations, 1996.

4.       ASSET MANAGEMENT COMPANY (AMC):The Trustee as the Investment Manager of the Mutual Fund appoints the AMC. The AMC is required to be approved by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) to act as an asset management company of the Mutual Fund.

5.       REGISTAR AND TRANSFER AGENT: The AMC if so authorized by the Trust Deed appoints the Registrar and Transfer Agent to the Mutual Fund.

6.       NAV:  NAV or Net Asset Value is the market value of the assets per unit after deducting the liabilities.

7.       LOCK-IN PERIOD: If investment is in equity linked saving schemes (ELSS) the lock in period is three years. Which means your money will remain locked in with the mutual fund company for a period of three years. 

SIP: SIP or Systematic Investment Plan enables you to invest an amount on a regular basis and bring about a disciplined approach to investing.

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