Skip to main content


Showing posts from January, 2017


* indicates required

You can Translate article here


THE COMING OF THE EUROPEANS Europeans reached the Indian shores in search of wealth and power. In 1498, Portuguese traders became the first to discover the sea route to India when a Portuguese voyager arrived at Calicut (modern Kozhikode, Kerala) on the western coast of India. The Dutch followed them in 1595, the English in 1600, and at last, the French in 1664. All these Europeans came to India for free trade. The Europeans nations established various commercial companies, such as the East India Company in England founded in 1600 and Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie – the United East India Company in the Netherlands – founded in 1602. These companies were formed to capture the spice trade by breaking the monopoly of Portuguese in Asia. Rise of Autonomous States In the eighteenth century, when the Mughal Empire declined, various autonomous states were established such as in Bengal (under Murshid Quli Khan), Oudh or Awadh (under Sadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk), Hyderabad (under Nizam-ul


In 1600, the English East India Company was established through a  charter signed by Queen Elizabeth I  in 1600. The charter granted the company the permission to trade with India. In 1608,  Captain Hawkins visited the court of Jahangir  but he was denied any trading rights. However, in 1619, when Sir Thomas Roe visited the court, they were allowed to set up their first factory in Surat(authorised factory). Gradually, the company was successful in setting up its factories at other places also such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.’ The agents of the English Company soon became familiar with Indian customs and languages. They learnt  Persian, the official language of the Mughals.  The English agents of this period lived like Indians, intermarried Indians, and most of them settled here permanently. All this gave the English an edge over their other European rivals. The English set up their factories in  Masulipatnam (1611) , Agra, Ahmedabad, Baroda, Broach (1619), Armagaon near  Pulicat


The Historical Background Indianisation of the superior civil services became one of the major demands of the political movement, compelling the British Indian government to consider the setting up of a Public Service Commission for recruitment of candidates to its services in the Union territory. The first Public Service Commission was set up on 1 October 1926. However, its limited advisory functions failed to satisfy the people’s aspirations and the continued stress on this aspect by the leaders of our freedom movement resulted in the setting up of the Federal Public Service Commission under the Government of India Act, 1935. Under this Act, for the first time, provision was also made for the formation of Public Service Commissions at the provincial level. The Constituent Assembly, after independence, saw the need for giving a secure and autonomous status to Public Service Commissions, both at the Federal and Provincial levels, for ensuring unbiased recruitment to civil services, a


Definition:  A rise in the general level of price in an economy. That is sustained over time. The opposite of Inflation in ‘deflation’.Inflation, in general, is just a price rise.When the general level of prices is falling over a period of time it is called deflation.The rate of inflation is measured on the basis of price indices which are of two kind WPI & CPIWPI - Wholesale Price IndexCPI - Consumer price Index Rate of inflation (Year x) In the index, the total weight is taken as 100 at particular year of the past i.e. Base year (Year of reference)Inflation is measured ‘point to point’. It means that the reference dates for the annual inflation are January to January of two consecutive years. This is similar for even weekly inflation. Types of Inflation: Broadly there are 2 types of inflation. (a) Demand - Pull Inflation: A mismatch between demand & supply pulls up the price.Either demand increases over the same level of supply or the supply decreases the same level of


The words ‘Statistics’ appears to have been derived from the latin word ‘status’ meaning a (political) state. In its origin, Statistic was simply the collect of data on different aspects of the life of the people. Statistics deals with data collected for specific purposes. We can make decisions about the data by analysing and interpreting it. Central line tendency Mean : The mean or average of a number of observation is the sum of the value of all the observation divided by the total number of the observations. It is denoted by the symbol ,  read as x bar Here n is a number of observation. Example-  people were asked about the time in a week they spend in doing social work in their community. They said 10, 7, 13, 20 and 15 hours respectively.Find the mean (or average) time in a week devoted by them in social work. Sol.  The mean =(Sum of all the observations)/(Total number of observations) =(10 + 7 + 13 + 20 + 15)/5=65/5=13  So, the time spent by these 5 people in doing socia


Green Revolution – I Introduced in 1966 (Plan Holiday) Father of Green Revolt – Dr. Norman Borlog Father of Green Revolt – M. S. Swaminathan (In India) Objectives: - Use of high yielding variety seeds, fertiliser, power and increase food productivity. Green Revolt – Phase – I – Wheat  Phase – II – Rice Focus Area: - Punjab, Haryana, Western U.P.   Green Revolution– II    concept by – Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam “Evergreen Revolution or Rainbow revolution” Start in decade of 2000 Objective: - Promote agriculture a/c to climate condition and also promote organic farming and increase overall food security. Focus crop: - Milk, egg, Meat, Vegetable → A/C to climatic condition Focus Area: - All India Organic farming:  - No use/less use of fertiliser - use bio fertiliser, like – Earthworm - the concept is given by – Albert Howard (1930 – 40) Zero farming:  - up to 3-4 years. – Continuous use of organic fertiliser/ organic farming and due to this fertility of soil increase and Af

Past Trending Posts