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Wednesday, January 4, 2017

GEOGRAPHY NOTES: Indian Agriculture For RRB NTPC EXAM and SSC CHSL EXAM

Green Revolution – I
Introduced in 1966 (Plan Holiday)
Father of Green Revolt – Dr. Norman Borlog
Father of Green Revolt – M. S. Swaminathan (In India)

Objectives: - Use of high yielding variety seeds, fertiliser, power and increase food productivity.
Green Revolt – Phase – I – Wheat 
Phase – II – Rice
Focus Area: - Punjab, Haryana, Western U.P.  

Green Revolution– II   concept by – Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
“Evergreen Revolution or Rainbow revolution”
Start in decade of 2000
Objective: - Promote agriculture a/c to climate condition and also promote organic farming and increase overall food security.
Focus crop: - Milk, egg, Meat, Vegetable → A/C to climatic condition
Focus Area: - All India

Organic farming: - No use/less use of fertiliser
- use bio fertiliser, like – Earthworm
- the concept is given by – Albert Howard (1930 – 40)

Zero farming: - up to 3-4 years. – Continuous use of organic fertiliser/ organic farming and due to this fertility of soil increase and After  some period, there will be no use of fertiliser

JHOOM CULTIVATION -

In this farming, after cutting one crop the land is left as it is for some years. Nothing is grown there. The weeds or bamboo which grow on that land are not pulled out. They are cut and burnt. The ash makes the land fertile. While burning, care is taken so that the fire does not spread to other parts of the forest. When the land is ready for farming it is lightly dug up, not ploughed. Seeds are dropped on it. In one farm different types of crops like maize, vegetables, chillies, rice can be grown.

Tribal society (Northeast region)

Consumption of NPK (Ideal) = 4 : 2 : 1
                                    ↓
                                 In India = 5.5 : 2.7 : 1 (used)
Net sawing Area (India) = 142 million Hectare → 39% Irrigated
Irrigation: Wells, tube well (60%) > Canal (27%) > Tank (13%)
Net Irrigated area: U.P. > M.P. > RJ
Irrigation Intensity: PB > U.P.
Tank Irrigation: AP > TN > UP
Well Irrigation: UP > PB > Bihar
Canal Irrigation: UP > RJ > HR

IRRIGATION PROJECT
1. Micro → Less than 2000 Hectare
2. Medium → 2000 – 5000 Hectare
3. Large → Above 5000 Hectare

Major crops in India
1. Rice:-
Monsoon/Tropical crop
Kharif
world – India (maximum Area – Sow – Rice)
Largest producer of rice in world – China
Second – India 

Breed:-
1. Samba, Kuruwai – Tamilnadu
2. Kamini – WB
3. Basmati – UP

National Rice Research Institute – Katak (Orissa)
Largest rice producer in India – WB
Bowl of rice – Chattisgarh (Per hectare productivity max.)
People of India – Maximum eating habit – Rice
Nellore District(AP) – Rice productive high
Highest fertiliser used – HP

2. Wheat:-
2nd largest food crop in India
Largest wheat producer of world – China
2nd largest wheat producer of world – India
Largest wheat producer in India – UP > PB > HR
export – Punjab
productivity – Punjab

Breed:-
1. Larma
2. Rajo
3. Sonal

LARGEST PRODUCER IN India
1. BARLEY ( U.P.)
2. BAJRA (RJ)
3. Maize (AP)
4. PULSES ( MP)
5. MUSTARD(RJ)
6. GROUNDNUT(GJ)
7. SUNFLOWER (KA)
8. SOYABEAN( MP))
9. COCONUT/SPICES (KERALA)
10. SUGARCANE (UP)
11. SUGAR (MH)
12. COTTON (GJ)
13. TEA (ASSAM)
14. COFFEE (KA)
15. RUBBER(KERALA)
16. ONION (MH)
17. JUTE (WB)

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