Showing posts with label GK. Show all posts
Showing posts with label GK. Show all posts

List Of Scientific Name Of Animals and Birds

Common Name Of Animals & Birds
Scientific Name
Pavo cristatus
Vulpes vulpes
Panthera Tigris
Equus caballus
Babalus bubalis
Canis lupus familiaris
Felis domesticus
Rhesus monkey or baudar
Macaca mulatta
Hippopotamus amphibius
Rhinoceros unicornis
Kashmir stag or hangul
Cervus canadensis hanglu
Elephas maximus
Gazella bennettii
Panthera leo
Columba livia
King Cobra
Ophiophagus hannah
Wild Ass
Equus africanus asinus
Leopard or Panther
Panthera pardus
Acinonyx jubatus
Rana Tigrina

Important Days to Remember - July

1 July - SBI Day

On July 1, 1955, the Imperial Bank of India was reconstituted by an Act of Parliament to create State Bank of India to perform the functions of a commercial bank. This marked the start of a new era in banking in the country, said a press release from SBI.

1 - 10 July - Van Mahotsav

Van Mahotsav was launched in the year 1950 by Shri Kanhaiyalal. M. Munshi, the then Union Minister for Agriculture and Food to create an enthusiasm in the popular mind for the preservation of forest and planting of trees. Van Mahotsav, a week long festival of tree planting is organised every year in the month of July all across India and lakhs of trees are planted.

4 July -  American Independence Day

July 4, 1776, was the day that represents the Declaration of Independence and the birth of the United States of America as an independent nation.

6 July -  World Zoonoses Day

World Zoonoses Day is observed on July 6 every year to emphasize and bring the problem awareness amongst people about zoonotic diseases and teach them to take the right action.

11 July -  World Population Day

The United Nations General Assembly observes World Population Day to enhance awareness of population issues, including their relations to the environment and development. 

12 July - International Malala Day

The UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon announced 10th November 2012 as Malala Day, a month after Malala was shot at by the Taliban for campaigning for girls' education in Pakistan to support her and her fight for education. 12 July 2013 is Malala Yousafzai's 16th birthday. Malala Yousafzai delivered a speech on global education – her first public speech since being targeted by the Taliban for her commitment to education.

15 July - World Youth Skill Day

The United Nations observes July 15 as a World Youth Skills Day in order to understand what works to support these young professionals in the industry through training and skills development.

18 July - International Nelson Mandela Day

Nelson Mandela devoted his life to the service of humanity — as a human rights lawyer, a prisoner of conscience, an international peacemaker and the first democratically elected president of a free South Africa. Every year on 18 July — the day Nelson Mandela was born — the UN asks individuals around the world to mark Nelson Mandela International Day (18 July) by making a difference in their communities. 

17 July - International Justice Day

The International Criminal Justice Day is commemorated on 17 July; this is the day that marks the entry into force of the Rome Statute for the International Criminal Court (ICC), which took place ten years ago in 2002.

26 July -  Kargil Memorial Day/ Kargil Vijay Diwas

Kargil Vijay Diwas is a memorial day in India that commemorates the end of the 1999 Kargil conflict between India and Pakistan.

28 July - World Hepatitis Day

World Hepatitis Day (WHD) takes places every year on 28 July and brings the world together under a single theme to raise awareness of the global burden of viral hepatitis and to influence real change. One of just four disease-specific global awareness days officially endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO).

29 July - World Tiger Day

Global Tiger Day is celebrated every year on July 29th as a way to raise awareness about this magnificent but endangered big cat. The day was founded in 2010, when the 13 tiger range countries came together to create Tx2 – the global goal to double the number of wild tigers by the year 2022. 

GA Study Notes On Cement Manufacturing

Manufacturing of Cement

Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments.The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.It was discovered by an English Mason, Joseph Aspdin in 1824. He called it Portland cement because he thought that it resembled the limestone found in Portland.

Approximate Composition of Portland cement
Calcium oxide (CaO) 60-70%
Silica (SiO2) 20-25%

Alumina (Al2O3) 5-10%

Ferric oxide (Fe2O3 )         2-3%

Raw materials are:

Limestone -  (provides lime), Clay -  (provides alumina and silica), Gypsum - (reduces the setting time of cement).

For a good quality cement, the ratio of silica (SiO) to alumina Al2O3) should be between 2.5 and 4 and the ratio of lime (CaO) to the total of the oxides of silicon (SiO2) aluminium (Al2O3) and iron (Fe2O3) should be as close as possible to 2.

The raw materials for the manufacture of cement are limestone and clay. When clay and lime are strongly heated together they fuse and react to form ‘cement clinker’. This clinker is mixed with 2-3% by weight of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) to form cement.Thus important ingredients present in Portland cement are dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) 26%, tricalciumsilicate (Ca3SiO5) 51% and tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al2O6)11%.Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand, and water. It is used for plastering walls and binding bricks and stones.Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, gravel or small pieces of stone and water. It is used for the construction of floors.RCC - The structure having iron rods embedded in wet concrete, is known as reinforced concrete. 

Setting of Cement: When mixed with water, the setting of cement takes place to give a hard mass. This is due to the hydration of the molecules of the constituents and their rearrangement. The purpose of adding gypsum is only to slow down the process of setting of the cement so that it gets sufficiently
hardened.It is an exothermic process, therefore cement structures have to be cooled up to 7 days by sprinkling water.

Uses: Cement has become a commodity of national necessity for any country next to iron and steel. It is used in concrete and reinforced concrete, in plastering and in the construction of bridges, dams, and buildings.

Prime Ministers (PM) of India

Prime Minister of a country plays an important role towards the blooming and growth of the country. So, it's important for an aspirant to know each and everything about the PM of the country as it has been seen that many times questions related to PM were asked in different exams like UPSC, SSC, Banking and Insurance. Keeping this prospect in mind we here with some of the important facts and figures about all the Prime Ministers of India.

01. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(Two times, August 15, 1947 - May 27, 1964)

On August 15, 1947, a free India was born. Nehru was elected as the first Prime Minister of independent India. He was the first PM to hoist the national flag and make his iconic speech "Tryst with Destiny" from the ramparts of the Lal Quila (Red Fort). 

Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was born in Allahabad on November 14, 1889. He received his early education at home under private tutors. At the age of fifteen, he went to England and after two years at Harrow joined Cambridge University where he took his tripos in Natural Sciences. He was later called to the Bar from Inner Temple. He returned to India in 1912 and plunged straight into politics. Even as a student, he had been interested in the struggle of all nations who suffered under foreign domination. He took a keen interest in the Sinn Fein Movement in Ireland. In India, he was inevitably drawn into the struggle for independence. 

Death: In 1964, Jawaharlal Nehru has suffered a stroke and a heart attack. On 27 May 1964, Nehru passed away. Nehru was cremated at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi. Memorial: Shantivan, New Delhi.

02. Gulzari Lal Nanda
(Two times, May 27, 1964 - June 9, 1964
January 11, 1966 - January 24, 1966)

Gulzarilal Nanda was an eminent Indian politician who is widely known for his stint as interim Prime Minister of India twice. Though both his terms were uneventful, the timing was crucial. When Jawaharlal Nehru passed away in 1962, India was trying to overcome from the war with China. At the crucial point, Nanda stepped up to lead the nation which was leaderless. Following the appointment of Lal Bahadur Shastri, Nanda stepped down from his position as interim Prime Minister only to take it up yet again in 1966 when Lal Bahadur Shastri passed away. Once again, the time when Nanda stepped up was crucial as India was reeling from a war with Pakistan in 1965. Nanda served both the terms for merely thirteen days each. 

Born on July 4, 1898, in Sialkot (Punjab), Shri Gulzarilal Nanda was educated at Lahore, Agra, and Allahabad. He worked as a research scholar on labour problems at the University of Allahabad (1920-1921) and became Professor of Economics at the National College (Bombay) in 1921. He joined the Non-Cooperation Movement the same year. In 1922, he becomes Secretary of the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association in which he worked until 1946. He was imprisoned for Satyagraha in 1932, and again from 1942 to 1944.

Death: 15th January 1998 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

03. Lal Bahadur Shastri
(One time June 9, 1964 - January 11, 1966)

Lal Bahadur Shastri was an Indian political leader who served as the Prime Minister of the Republic of India. Influenced by prominent Indian national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, he plunged into the Indian independence movement in the early 1920s. Before becoming the Prime Minister of India, he served in a number of other departments like the railway ministry and the home ministry. With his policies of non-alignment and socialism and influences of Nehruvian socialism in his political thinking, Shastri became one of the most loved political leaders of all times. He coined the famous slogan “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan” during the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965. 

Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on October 2, 1901, at Mughalsarai, a small railway town seven miles from Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. His father was a school teacher who died when Lal Bahadur Shastri was only a year and half old. His mother, still in her twenties, took her three children to her father's house and settled down there. 

Death: Lal Bahadur Shastri, who had earlier suffered two heart attacks, died of a third cardiac arrest on 11 January 1966 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. He is the only incumbent Indian Prime Minister to have died overseas. Lal Bahadur Shastri was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award posthumously in 1966. 

04. Indira Gandhi
(Three Times, January 14, 1980 - October 31, 1984
January 24, 1966 - March 24, 1977)

Indira Gandhi was an Indian politician and the only female Prime Minister of India. Following the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri on 11 January 1966, in Tashkent, the race to the coveted throne of the Prime Minister began. After much deliberation, Indira was chosen as the Prime Ministerial candidate by the Congress high command solely because they presumed that she could be easily manipulated. She contested and emerged victorious during the interim elections of 1966.  In the 1980 elections, Congress returned to power with a landslide majority and Indira Gandhi returned as Prime Minister of India once again.

Born on November 19, 1917, in an illustrious family, Smt. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. Being academically inclined, she studied at Ecole Nouvelle, Bex (Switzerland), Ecole Internationale, Geneva, Pupils' Own School, Poona and Bombay, Badminton School, Bristol, Vishwa Bharati, Shantiniketan and Somerville College, Oxford. She was imprisoned in September 1942 and worked in riot-affected areas of Delhi in 1947 under Gandhiji's guidance. She got married to Feroze Gandhi on March 26, 1942, and had two sons Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi.  

Assassination: On 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh fired a total of 31 bullets on Indira Gandhi from their service weapons as a revenge of the Golden Temple assault at her residence - 1, Safdarjung Road in New Delhi and she succumbed to her injuries. Memorial: Shakti Sthal, New Delhi

05.  Morarji Ranchhodji Desai
(One time, March 24, 1977 - July 28, 1979)

Morarji Ranchhodji Desai was an Indian independence activist and the Prime Minister of India from 1977-79. He was the first Indian Prime Minister who did not belong to the Indian National Congress. He is the only Indian to receive the highest civilian awards from both India and Pakistan, the Bharat Ratna and Nishan-e-Pakistan.

Morarji Desai was born on February 29, 1896, in Bhadeli village, now in the Bulsar district of Gujarat. His father was a school teacher and a strict disciplinarian. From his childhood, young Morarji learned from his father the value of hard work and truthfulness under all circumstances. He was educated St. Busar High School and passed his matriculation examination. After graduating from the Wilson Civil Service of the then Bombay Province in 1918, he served as a Deputy Collector for twelve years. 

Death: Morarji Ranchhodji Desai has died on 10 April 1995 in Mumbai.

06. Chaudhary Charan Singh
(One time, July 28, 1979 - January 14, 1980)

Chaudhary Charan Singh was the sixth Prime Minister of the Republic of India, serving from 28 July 1979 until 14 January 1980. The leader of the Bharatiya Lok Dal, a major constituent of the Janata coalition, he was disappointed in his ambition to become Prime Minister in 1977 by Jayaprakash Narayan's choice of Morarji Desai. He settled at the time for the largely honorary post of Deputy Prime Minister of India. 

Charan Singh was born in 1902 at Noorpur in Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh, in a middle-class peasant family. He graduated in science in 1923 and did his post-graduation from Agra University in 1925. Also trained in law, he set up practice at Ghaziabad. He shifted to Meerut in 1929 and later joined the Congress. 

Death: at the age of 84 he died on May 29, 1987, in New Delhi. Memorial: Kisan Ghat.

07. Rajiv Gandhi
(One time, October 31, 1984 - December 2, 1989)

At 40, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi was the youngest Prime Minister of India, perhaps even one of the youngest elected heads of Government in the world. His mother, Smt. Indira Gandhi, was eight years older when she first became Prime Minister in 1966. His illustrious grandfather, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, was 58 when he started the long innings of 17 years as free India's first Prime Minister. 

Rajiv Gandhi was born on August 20, 1944, in Bombay. He was just three when India became independent and his grandfather became Prime Minister. His parents moved to New Delhi from Lucknow. His father, Feroze Gandhi, became an M.P. and earned a reputation as a fearless and hard-working Parliamentarian. 

Assassination: On 21 May 1991, on his way towards the dais, Rajiv Gandhi was garlanded by many Congress supporters and well-wishers. At around 10 pm, the assassin greeted him and bent down to touch his feet. She then exploded an RDX explosive-laden belt attached to her waist-belt. The act of violence was reportedly carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), in retaliation to the involvement of Indian Peace-keeping Force (IPKF) in Sri Lanka. Memorial: Rajiv Gandhi Memorial, Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu.

08. Vishwanath Pratap Singh
(One time, December 2, 1989 - November 10, 1990)

Vishwanath Pratap Singh was eighth Prime Minister of India in 1989–90. He was sworn in as India’s prime minister on December 2, 1989. After state legislative elections in March 1990, Singh’s governing coalition achieved control of both houses of India’s parliament. The coalition was soon riven by disputes having to do with religious and caste issues, however, and Singh resigned on November 7, 1990, after receiving a vote of no confidence in the Lok Sabha.

Born on June 25, 1931, at Allahabad, Shri V.P. Singh is the son of Raja Bahadur Ram Gopal Singh. He was educated at Allahabad and Poona Universities. He was married to Smt. Sita Kumari on June 25, 1955, and has two sons. A scholarly man, he was the proud founder of Gopal Vidyalaya, Intermediate College, Koraon, Allahabad. He was the President of the Students Union at Udai Pratap College, Varanasi in 1947-48 and was the Vice-President, Allahabad University Students Union. He actively participated in Bhoodan movement in 1957 and donated a well-established farm in village Pasna, District Allahabad. 

Death: Vishwanath Pratap Singh has died on November 27, 2008 in New Delhi.

09. Chandra Shekhar
(One time, November 10, 1990 - June 21, 1991)

Chandra Shekhar was sworn in as Prime Minister of India from November 1990 to June 1991. Shekhar was a leading member of the Socialist Party before he joined the ruling Congress Party in 1964. He was a member of India’s upper legislative chamber, the Rajya Sabha, from 1962 to 1967, and he held a seat in the lower chamber, the Lok Sabha, in 1977–79, 1980–84, and from 1989 until he became prime minister. Shekhar split with the leader of the Congress Party, Indira Gandhi, in 1975 and spent time in prison during the national emergency she subsequently declared.

Chandra Shekhar was born on July 1, 1927, in a farmer's family in village Ibrahimpatti in District Ballia, Uttar Pradesh. He was President of the Janata Party from 1977 to 1988. Chandra Shekhar was attracted to politics from his student days and was known as a fire-brand idealist with revolutionary fervour. After his Master's Degree in Political Science from Allahabad University (1950-51), he joined the Socialist Movement. 

Death: Chandra Shekhar has died on 8 July 2007 in New Delhi.

10. Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao
(One time, June 21, 1991- May 16, 1996)

P.V. Narasimha Rao was the first Prime Minister outside the Nehru-Gandhi family to serve office for five years. He is credited with resurrecting India's economy. PV Narasimha Rao remained in office as the Prime Minister from June 21, 1991, to May 16, 1996. 

Son of Shri P. Ranga Rao, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao was born on June 28, 1921 at Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh (Now in Telangana). He studied at Osmania University, Hyderabad, Bombay University and the Nagpur University. A widower, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao is the father of three sons and five daughters. Narasimha Rao took over as Home Minister on July 19, 1984. He was re-appointed to this post, with the additional charge of the Ministry of Planning, on November 5, 1984. Appointed Minister of Defence from December 31, 1984, to September 25, 1985. On September 25, 1985, he took over as Minister of Human Resource Development. 

Death: P.V. Narasimha Rao has died on 23 December 2004 in New Delhi.

11. H. D. Deve Gowda
(One time, June 1, 1996 - April 21, 1997)

Haradanahalli Dodde Gowda Deve Gowda was the Prime Minister of India and was also the fourteenth Chief Minister of Karnataka. He is the leader of the Janata Dal (Secular) political party and is also a member of the Parliament representing the Hassan district of Karnataka. H.D. Deve Gowda is well known for listening patiently to every class of society and was thus called the 'Son of the Soil'. During his working days, he was also engaged in reading books in the library of the Legislative Assembly. Apart from this, he is popular for performing and maintaining the reputation and dignity of the Parliament.

H. D. Deve Gowda, a staunch crusader of socio-economic development and an ardent admirer of the rich cultural heritage of India, was born on May 18, 1933 in Haradanahalli village of Holenarasipura taluk, Hassan District in Karnataka. A Civil Engineering Diploma holder, Deve Gowda plunged into active politics at the early age of 20 when, after completing his education, he joined the Congress Party in 1953 and remained a member till 1962. Coming from a middle-class agrarian background and exposed to the hardships of farmer's life, young Gowda vowed to become a fighter who would take up the cause of poor farmers, underprivileged and oppressed sections of society. 

12. Inder Kumar Gujral
(One time, April 21, 1997 - March 19, 1998)

Inder Kumar Gujral was sworn in as the 12th Prime Minister of India the 21st of April, 1997. Son of Late Shri Avtar Narain Gujral and Late Smt. Pushpa Gujral, Shri Gujral is M.A., B.Com. Ph.D. & D.Litt. (Hons. Causa). He was born at Jhelum (in undivided Punjab) on 4th December 1919. He and Smt. Shiela Gujral was married on May 26, 1945. Gujral belongs to a family of freedom fighters: both his parents participated in the freedom struggle in Punjab. At the young age of eleven, he himself actively participated in the freedom struggle in 1931 and was arrested and severely beaten by the police for organizing movement of young children in the Jhelum town. In 1942, he was jailed during the Quit India Movement. 

Before assuming the office of the Prime Minister of India, Gujral was the Minister of External Affairs from June 1, 1996, and held additional charge of the Ministry of Water Resources from June 28, 1996. He was the Minister of External Affairs earlier during 1989-1990. He was Ambassador of India to U.S.S.R. (Cabinet Rank) from 1976-1980 and held the Ministerial positions from 1967-1976.

13. Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(Three times, March 19, 1998 - May 22, 2004 
May 16, 1996 - June 1, 1996)

A man of the masses, firm in his political convictions. On October 13, 1999, he took charge as Prime Minister of India for the second consecutive term at the head of a new coalition government, the National Democratic Alliance. He was Prime Minister for a short period in 1996. He is the first Prime Minister since Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to have become Prime Minister of India with two successive mandates. A veteran Parliamentarian whose career stretches over four decades, Shri Vajpayee has been elected to the Lok Sabha (House of the People) nine times and to the Rajya Sabha (House of the States) twice, a record by itself. As India’s Prime Minister, Foreign Minister, Chairperson of various important Standing Committees of Parliament and Leader of the Opposition, he has been an active participant in shaping India’s post-Independence domestic and foreign policy.

Born in the family of a humble school teacher on December 25, 1924, in the erstwhile princely State of Gwalior (now a part of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh), Shri Vajpayee's rise in public life is a tribute to both his political acumen and Indian democracy. Over the decades, he has emerged as a leader who commands respect for his liberal worldview and commitment to democratic ideals. 

India's second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan, was conferred upon him in recognition of his selfless dedication to his first and only love, India, and his more than half-a-century of service to society and the nation. In 1994, he was named India's 'Best Parliamentarian'. The citation read: "True to his name, Atalji is an eminent national leader, an erudite politician, a selfless social worker, the forceful orator, poet and litterateur, journalist and indeed a multi-faceted personality…Atalji articulates the aspirations of the masses… his works ever echo the total commitment to nationalism. Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee has been conferred with India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna by the President of India Pranab Mukherjee on 27th March 2015.

14. Dr. Manmohan Singh
(Two times, May 22, 2004 - 26th May 2014)

India’s fourteenth Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. He is well regarded for his diligence and his academic approach to work, as well as his accessibility and his unassuming demeanour.

In 1971, Dr. Singh joined the Government of India as Economic Advisor in the Commerce Ministry. In his political career, Dr. Singh has been a Member of India’s Upper House of Parliament (the Rajya Sabha) since 1991, where he was Leader of the Opposition between 1998 and 2004. Dr. Manmohan Singh was sworn in as Prime Minister on 22nd May after the 2004 general elections and took the oath of office for a second term on 22nd May 2009.

This was soon followed by his appointment as Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. Among the many Governmental positions that Dr. Singh has occupied are Secretary in the Ministry of Finance; Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission; Governor of the Reserve Bank of India; Advisor of the Prime Minister; and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. In what was to become the turning point in the economic history of independent India, Dr. Singh spent five years between 1991 and 1996 as India’s Finance Minister. His role in ushering in a comprehensive policy of economic reforms is now recognized worldwide. In the popular view of those years in India, that period is inextricably associated with the persona of Dr. Singh.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was born on September 26, 1932, in a village in the Punjab province of undivided India. Dr. Singh completed his Matriculation examinations from the Punjab University in 1948. His academic career took him from Punjab to the University of Cambridge, UK, where he earned a First Class Honours degree in Economics in 1957. Dr. Singh followed this with a D. Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. His book, “India’s Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth” [Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1964] was an early critique of India’s inward-oriented trade policy.

15. Narendra Modi
(26th May 2014 to present)

On 26th May 2014 Narendra Modi took oath as the Prime Minister of India, becoming the first ever PM to be born after India attained Independence. Dynamic, dedicated and determined, Narendra Modi reflects the aspiration and hope of over a billion Indians. Ever since he assumed office in May 2014, PM Modi has embarked on a journey of all-around and inclusive development where every Indian can realize their hopes and aspirations. He remains deeply inspired by the principle of ‘Antyodaya’, of serving the last person in the queue. In the year 2001, he became the Chief Minister of his home State Gujarat and went on to serve a record four terms as Chief Minister. He transformed Gujarat, which was reeling from the after-effects of a devastating earthquake, into a growth engine that makes a strong contribution to India’s development.

Born on 17 September 1950 in a small town in Gujarat, he grew up in a poor but loving family ‘without a spare rupee’. The initial hardships of life not only taught the value of hard work but also exposed him to the avoidable sufferings of the common people. This inspired him from a very young age to immerse himself in service of people and the nation. In initial years, he worked with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) a Nationalist organization devoted to nation building and later devoted himself to politics working with the Bharatiya Janta Party organization at National and State level. Shri Modi completed his MA in political science from Gujarat University.

Source- Prime Minister Office (PMO India

Census 2011 | Important notes on Census 2011

Census is an important topic from which you can find some questions in banking and SSC exams. So, here we provide you brief about census 2011.

The Indian Census is the largest single source of a variety of statistical information on different characteristics of the people of India. With a history of more than 130 years, this reliable, time-tested exercise has been bringing out a veritable wealth of statistics every 10 years, beginning from 1872 when the first census was conducted in India non-synchronously in different parts. To scholars and researchers in demography, economics, anthropology, sociology, statistics and many other disciplines, the Indian Census has been a fascinating source of data. The rich diversity of the people of India is truly brought out by the decennial census which has become one of the tools to understand and study India.

Population Census 2011

The Census 2011 is the 15th National census survey conducted by the Census Organization of India. Mr. C. Chandramouli is the Commissioner & Registrar General of the Indian 2011 Census. The 2011 Indian National Census has been conducted in 2 phases - house listing and population. The national census survey covered all the 28 states of the country and 7 Union territories including 640 districts, 497 cities, 5767 tehsils & over 6 lakh villages.

The Indian Population Census 2011 covered a number of parameters during the survey. These parameters include population, the growth rate in the population, the rate of literacy, the density of population, sex ratio and child sex ratio (0-6 years). According to the census reports of Indian Census 2011, the population of India is 1,210,854,977 with 623, 724, 248 males and 586,469, 174 females. The total literacy rate in the country at present is 74.04%. The density of population is 382 persons/ In regards to sex ratio, at present, there are 940 females on average on per 1000 males and the child sex ratio is 914 females per 1000 males.

Literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 percent in 2001 to 74.04 percent in 2011 showing an increase of 9.21 percentage points.

Most Populated Metros:-

1. Mumbai: 18,394,912
2. Delhi: 16,349,831
3. Kolkata: 14,035,959
4. Chennai: 8,653,521
5. Bangalore: 8,520,435

High/Top Population States:

1. Uttar Pradesh: 19, 95, 81, 477
2. Maharashtra: 11, 23, 72, 972
3. Bihar: 10, 38, 04, 637
4. West Bengal: 9, 13, 47, 736

Low/Bottom Population States:

1. Lakshadweep: 64.47 Thous
2. Daman & Diu: 2.43 Lakh
3. Dadar & Nagar Haveli: 3.44 Lakh
4. Andaman and Nicobar Islands: 3.81 Lakh
5. Sikkim: 6.11 Lakh

Top Literate States:

1. Kerala: 94.00 %
2. Lakshadweep: 91.85 %
3. Mizoram: 91.33 %
4. Goa: 88.70 %
5. Tripura: 87.22 %

Bottom Literate States:

1. Bihar: 63.82
2. Arunachal Pradesh: 66.95

Sex ratio (females per thousand males):

India: 933
Rural: 946
Urban: 900
State with Highest Female Sex Ratio (Kerala): 1,058
State with Lowest Female Sex Ratio (Haryana): 861
UT with Highest Female Sex Ratio (Pondicherry): 1,001
UT with Lowest Female Sex Ratio (Daman & Diu): 710
District with Highest Female Sex Ratio (Mahe, Pondicherry): 1,147
District with Lowest Female Sex Ratio (Daman, Daman & Diu): 591

High-Density State:

1. Delhi: 11,320
2. Chandigarh: 9,258
3. Puducherry: 2,547
4. Daman and Diu: 2,191
5. Lakshadweep: 2,149

History Notes: 1857 Revolt For SSC CGL EXAM

General facts-
PM of England – Palmerston
Governor general – Lord Canning of India
Emperor of India – Bahadur Sah Jafar
Commander of Britishers –Campbell

A. Reason between 1757 – 1857
Wellesely – Treaty of Subsidiary Alliance
Dallousive – Doctrine of lapse
Revenue System- Exploitation of Peasents
Education  → Modernity → Analysis
Indian Industries → closed
Rural Industries → closed
Conversion into Christan
Social interference → Sati, Slave, widow remarriage Act.
Sepoy dissatisfaction

B. Immediate Cause
Use of rifle,  cartridges of this rifle were made from cow and pig fat.


Nature of Revolt

Lorentz & Seele  :  Sepoy movement
Reege               : Revolt against Christianity
Homes                : A war between cirilisation and anarchasim
Taylor                 : Hindu – Muslim conspiracy
Disraeli                 : National movement
R. C. majumdar : Neither first nor national and freedom struggle
V. D. Sawarkar : First war of Independence

International Static Awareness

The knowledge of Static Awareness is very important for all govt. Examinations whether it is SSC, Banking or UPSC. The knowledge of Current Affairs and various important facts about different countries can also give you an upper hand in interviews and cracking General Awareness section. Recently China was in news as it overtook eurozone as world's biggest bank system and the 9th BRICS Summit is to be held in Xiamen city, China. United Kingdom was in news as it's parliament gave final approval for Brexit bill and; Oman and Nepal were in news for Indo-Oman joint military exercise 'Al-Nagah-II' and Indo-Nepal joint military exercise respectively.

Generally the questions that you’ll face in examination will be from countries currently in news for various reasons, so it is important to be updated and revise facts about them. Read further to brush your general knowledge about China, UK, Nepal, USA and Oman.


China is a one-party state, with real power lying with the Chinese Communist party. The country is governed under the constitution of 1982 as amended, the fifth constitution since the accession of the Communists in 1949. The unicameral legislature is the National People's Congress (NPC), consisting of deputies who are indirectly elected to terms of five years.

Capital- Beijing
Currency- Yuan or Renminbi
Parliament- National People's Assembly
Premier of China-  Li Keqiang
President of China- Xi Jinping
Central Bank of China- People's Bank of China
President of People's Bank of China- Zhou Xiaochuan

Stock Exchange of China- SSE Composite - index of all listed stocks (A shares and B shares) at Shanghai Stock Exchange.

Headquarters of Important international organizations in China

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) - Beijing, China
New Development Bank (NDB) - Shanghai, China

Important facts about China:

1. China is the world's most populous country.
2. China has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget.
3. China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods.
4. Table tennis is China's national sport.
5. The Great Wall of China is one amongst the Seven Wonders of the World. It was built in 7th century. It is only thing which is visible from space.
6. China is famous for its one child policy.

 United Kingdom 

The UK is situated north-west of the European continent between the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. It has a total land area of 244,100 square kilometres, of which nearly 99% is land and the remainder inland water. From north to south it is about 1,000 kilometres long. The official name of the UK is the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".

The United Kingdom is made up of:
England - The capital is London.
Scotland - The capital is Edinburgh .
Wales - The capital is Cardiff.
Northern Ireland - The capital is Belfast.
England, Scotland and Wales together form Great Britain.

Great Britain and Northern Ireland together form the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" (UK).
Capital- London
Currency- Pound sterling
Parliament- "The House of Commons" and "House of Lords" each play an important role in Parliament's work.
Prime Minister of UK- Theresa May
Central Bank of UK- Bank of England (BoE) 
Governor of Bank of England (BoE)- Mark Carney

Headquarters of Important international organizations in UK:
Commonwealth Games- London
International Maritime Organization (IMO)- London

Important facts about UK:

1. The United Kingdom happens to be the first industrialized country in the World.
2. Cricket was evolved in England in the 18th century.
3. Queen Elizabeth II is the world's longest-reigning living monarch after the death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand.


Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia. Nepal is a landlocked country is bordered by China and India. It is located in the Himalayas and contains eight of the world's ten highest peaks.

Capital: Kathmandu
Currency: Nepalese rupee
Prime Minister: Pushpa Kamal Dahal 
President: Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Central Bank of Nepal- Nepal Rastra Bank 
Governor of Nepal Rastra Bank- Dr. Chiranjibi Nepal

Headquarters of Important international organizations in Nepal:

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)- Kathmandu

Important facts about Nepal:

1. The Himalayas mountains is shared between five countries in descending order: Nepal, Bhutan, India, China and Pakistan. The mountainous north of Nepal has eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains, including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest.
2. Nepal does not have an independent day because Nepal was never colonized.
3. Siddhartha Gautam (Buddha) was born in Kapilvastu, Lumbini which lies in Nepal. Lumbini is a sacred place for Buddhists.

 United States of America 

The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C., and several territories. 

The Constitution of the United States divides the federal government into three branches to ensure a central government in which no individual or group gains too much control:
1. Legislative – Makes laws (Congress)
2. Executive – Carries out laws (President, Vice President and Cabinet)
3. Judicial – Evaluates laws (Supreme Court and other courts)

Capital- Washington, D.C.
Currency- United States dollar 
Parliament- The United States House of Representatives
President of USA- Donald Trump (45th President of USA)
Central Bank of USA- Federal Reserve System
Chairperson of Federal Reserve System- Janet Yellen 

Headquarters of Important international organizations in USA:

International Monetary Fund (IMF)- Washington, D.C.
World Bank Group- Washington, D.C.
United Nations- New York

Important facts about USA:

1. The largest air force in the world is the U.S. Air Force. The world’s second-largest air force is the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps combined.
2. The United States is the world's largest national economy in nominal terms and second largest according to purchasing power parity (PPP), representing 22% of nominal global GDP and 17% of gross world product (GWP).
3. United States is largest aviation market in terms of domestic passenger traffic with 815 million passengers in 2016.
4. Stock Exchange the NASDAQ Stock Market is an American stock exchange. It is the second-largest exchange in the world by market capitalization, behind only the New York Stock Exchange (USA). 


Oman, a nation on the Arabian Peninsula, has terrain encompassing desert, riverbed oases and long coastlines on the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman.

Capital: Muscat
Currency: Omani rial
Sultan: Qaboos bin Said al Said
Central Bank of Oman- Central Bank of Oman
Deputy Chairman of Central Bank of Oman- H.E. Dr. Ali bin Mohammed bin Moosa

Uttar Pradesh General Knowledge for Bank SSC Exams

The knowledge of Static Awareness is very important for all govt. Examinations whether it is SSC, Banking or UPSC. The knowledge of Current Affairs and various important facts about different state can also give you an upper hand in interviews and cracking General Awareness section. Today, in brief, we will talk about the most populated state in country i.e Uttar Pradesh.


Uttar Pradesh is the rainbow land where the multi-hued Indian Culture has blossomed from times immemorial. Blessed with a veracity of geographical land and many cultural diversities, Uttar Pradesh, has been the area of activity of historical heroes like - Rama, Krishna, Buddha, Mahavira and Ashoka. Rich and tranquil expanses of meadows, perennial rivers, dense forests and fertile soil of Uttar Pradesh have contributed numerous golden chapters to the annals of Indian History. Dotted with various holy shrines and piligrim places, full of joyous festivals, it plays an important role in the politics, education, culture, industry, agriculture and tourism of India.

Capital- Lucknow
Chief Minister- Yogi Adityanath
Governor- Ram Naik

National Park in UP:

1. Dudhwa National Park

Name of Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) in UP:

1. Hastinapur WLS
2. Bakhira WLS
3. Chandraprabha WLS
4. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Bird WLS
5. National Chambal WLS
6. Okhala Bird WLS
7. Sur Sarovar WLS
8. Vijai Sagar WLS
9. Parvati Aranga WLS
10. Kishanpur WLS
11. Lakh Bahosi Bird WLS

International Airport in UP:

1. Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport, Lucknow
2. Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport, Varanasi

Important Fact about UP:

1. It borders along with 9 other states – Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh in north, Haryana, Delhi and Rajasthan in west, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in south, Bihar and Jharkhand in the east.

2. Uttar Pradesh is the home of premier educational institutes likes Banaras Hindu University, Aligarh Muslim University, Darul Uloom Deoband.

3. Uttar Pradesh is the largest state of India by population. As per the 2011 census, UP has estimated population of 199,581,477 which is 16.49% population of India. Male-female ratio is 1000/908 in the state

Religions Of The World (Important Facts and Figures)


Founder: Gautam Siddhartha ( Buddha)(563 to 483 BCE) born in Nepal (Lumbini) 
Founded in: 5th B
Followed in: China, Tibet, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Japan, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Taiwan, Indonesia, Bhutan and Vietnam
Sacred text: The Tripitaka (collection of Buddha’s teachings) also called Sutras 
Sacred places: Lumbini (Nepal), where Buddha was born, Bodh Gaya (Bihar), where he received Enlightenment and Kusinagara (UP), where he attained ‘Nirvana’ 
Place of worship: Vihar (temple) and Monastery (where Monks reside
Sects: Mahayana and Hinayana 


Founder: Kung Fu Tzu or Confucius (551 to 479 BCE), born in the State of Lu in China 
Founded in: 500 BCE
Followed in: China, Taiwan, South Korea, Nauru, and Vietnam 
Sacred text: The Lun Yu, The Analects 
Sacred place: Peking (Beijing) in China 
Place of worship: No church of temple 


Founder: Jesus Christ (4 BCE to 29 CE,) born in Judea. Also called Jesus of Nazareth 
Founded in: 2000 years ago 
Followed in: Spread all over the world 
Scared text: Holy Bible consisting of the Old Testament (before Christ) and the New Testament (during and after Christ) 
Place of worship: Church 
Important sects: Catholics and Protestants  


Funder: Ancient Sages
Founded in: 1500 BCE
Followed in: Concentrated in Indian and Nepal and also found in Bhutan, Fiji, Guyana, Indonesia, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, Bali 
Sacred texts: The Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the epics of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana 
Place of worship: Temple


Founder: Prophet Mohammed (570 to 632 CE,) born in Mecca (Saudi Arabia) 
Founded in: 622 CE
Followed in: West coast of Africa which includes Tanzania, Southern part of Russia and China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Indonesia, Also parts of North Africa
Sacred texts: Quran (words of God), Hadis (collection of Prophet’s savings) 
Sacred places: Makkah (Mecca) in Saudi Arabia 
Place of worship: Masjid (mosque) 
Important sects: Sunnis and shias 

Highlights of Union Budget 2017-18

The 2017 Union Budget, presented by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley on 01st February 2017, was broadly focused on 10 issues farming sector, rural population, youth, poor and health care for the underprivileged, infrastructure, financial sector for stronger institutions, speedy accountability, public services, prudent fiscal management and tax administration for the honest.

Following are the highlights of his speech on various issues:


1. Demonetisation is expected to have a transient impact on the economy.

2. It will have a great impact on the economy and lives of people .

3. Demonetisation is a bold and decisive measure that will lead to higher GDP growth.

4. The effects of demonetisation will not spillover to the next fiscal.

Agriculture sector

1. Sowing farmers should feel secure against natural calamities.

2. A sum of Rs. 10 lakh crore is allocated as credit to farmers, with 60 days interest waiver.

3. NABARD fund will be increased to Rs. 40,000 crore. 

4. Government will set up mini labs in Krishi Vigyan Kendras for soil testing.

5. A dedicated micro irrigation fund will be set up for NABARD with Rs 5,000 crore initial corpus.

6. Irrigation corpus increased from Rs 20,000 crore to Rs 40,000 crore.

7. Dairy processing infrastructure fund wlll be initially created with a corpus of Rs. 2000 crore.

8. Issuance of soil cards has gained momentum.

9. A model law on contract farming will be prepared and shared with the States.

Rural population

1. The government targets to bring 1 crore households out of poverty by 2019.

2. During 2017-18, five lakh farm ponds will be be taken up under the MGNREGA.

3. Over Rs 3 lakh crore will be spent for rural India. MGNREGA to double farmers' income.

4. Will take steps to ensure participation of women in MGNREGA up to 55%.

5. Space technology will be used in a big way to ensure MGNREGA works.

6. The government proposes to complete 1 crore houses for those without homes.

7. Will allocate Rs. 19,000 crore for Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana in 2017-18.

8. The country well on way to achieve 100% rural electrification by March 2018.

9. Swachh Bharat mission has made tremendous progress; sanitation coverage has gone up from 42% in Oct 13 to 60% now.

For youth

1. Will introduce a system of measuring annual learning outcomes and come out with an innovation fund for secondary education.

2. Focus will be on 3,479 educationally-backward blocks.

3. Colleges will be identified based on accreditation.

4. Skill India mission was launched to maximise potential. Will set up 100 India International centres across the country.

5. Courses on foreign languages will be introduced.

6. Will take steps to create 5000 PG seats per annum.

For the poor and health care

1. Rs. 500 crore allocated for Mahila Shakthi Kendras.

2. Under a nationwide scheme for pregnant women, Rs. 6000 will be transferred to each person.

3. A sum of Rs. 1,84,632  crore allocated for women and children.

4. Affordable housing will be given infrastructure status.

5. Owing to surplus liquidity, banks have started reducing lending rates for housing.

6. Elimination of tuberculosis by 2025 targeted.

7. Health sub centres, numbering 1.5 lakh, willl be transformed into health wellness centres.

8. Two AIIMS will be set up in Jharkhand and Gujarat.

9. Will undertake structural transformation of the regulator framework for medical education.

10. Allocation for Scheduled Castes  is Rs. 52,393  crore

11. Aadhaar-based smartcards will be issued to senior citizens to monitor health.

Infrastructure; Railways

1. A total allocation of Rs. 39,61,354 crore has been made.

2. Total allocation for Railways is Rs. 1,31,000 crore.

3. No service charge on tickets booked through IRCTC.

4. Raksha coach with a corpus of Rs. 1 lakh crore for five years (for passenger safety).

5. Unmanned level crossings will be eliminated by 2020.

6. 3,500 km of railway lines to be commissioned this year up from 2,800 km last year.

7. SMS-based ''clean my coach service'' is put in place.

8. Coach mitra facility will be introduced to register all coach related complaints.

9. By 2019 all trains will have bio-toilets.

10. Five-hundred stations will be made differently-abled friendly.

11. Railways to partner with logistics players for front-end and back-end solutions for select commodities.

12. Railways will offer competitive ticket booking facility

13. Rs. 64,000 crore allocated for highways. 

14. High speed Internet to be allocated to 1,50,000 gram panchayats

15. New Metro rail policy will be announced with new modes of financing

Energy Sector

1. A strategic policy for crude reserves will be set up

2. Rs. 1.26,000 cr for energy production-based investments received

3. Trade infra export scheme will be launched 2017-18.

Financial Sector

1. FDI policy reforms - more than 90% of FDI inflows are now automated.

2. Shares of Railway PSE like IRCTC would be listed on stock exchanges. 

3. Bill on resolution of financial firms to be introduced in this session of parliament.

4. Decided to abolish FIPB in 2017-18.

5. Foreign Investment Promotion Board to be abolished.

6. Revised mechanism to ensure time bound listing of CPSEs

7. Computer emergency response team for financial sector to be formed.

8. Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana lending target at Rs 2.44 lakh crore for 2017-18

9. Digital India - Bhim app will unleash mobile phone revolution - two new schemes to promote the app.

10. Govt to introduce two new schemes to promote BHIM App - referral bonus for users and cash back for traders: FM.

11. Negotiable Instruments Act might be amended.

12. DBT to LPG consumers , Chandigarh is kerosene free, 84 govt schemes are on the DBT platform.

13. Head post office as the central office for rendering passport services

14. Easy online booking system for Army, defence personnel

15. For big-time offences - including economic offenders fleeing India, the govt. will introduce a legislative change or new law to confiscate the assets of these people within the country.

Fiscal Situation

1. Total expenditure - Rs. 21, 47,000 crore

2. Abolition on plan, non-plan expenditure, focus on capital expenditure ( Capital expenditure will be 25.4 per cent)

3. Rs. 3,000 crore under Dept of Economic Affairs for implementing Budget announcements.

4. Defence expenditure, excluding pension, at Rs 2,74,114  crore

5. Expenditure in science and technology —  Rs. 37,435 crore

6. Total resources transferred to States and UTs is Rs 4.11 lakh crore

7. Recommended 3% fiscal deficit for three years with deviation of 0.5% of GDP.

8. Revenue deficit - 1.9 %

9. Pegged fiscal deficit of 2017-18 at 3.2% of GDP and remain committed to achieving 3% in the next year.

On funding of political parties

1. Maximum amount of cash donation for political parties will be Rs 2,000 from any one source from Rs 20,000

2. Political parties will be entitled to receive donations by cheque or digital mode from donors.

3. Amendment is being proposed to RBI Act to enable issuance of electoral bonds that government will scheme. Donor can 4. purchase these bonds from banks or post office via cheque or digital transactions. They can be redeemed only by registered political parties.

Tax proposals

1. Proportion of direct tax to indirect tax is not optimal.

2. 1.95 crore individuals showed income between Rs 2.5 lakh to Rs 5 lakh.

3. Out of 76 lakh individual assessees declaring income more than Rs 5 lakh, 56 lakh are salaried.

4. Only 1.72 lakh people showed income of more than Rs 50 lakh a year.

5. Between Nov 8 to Dec 30: Deposits between Rs 2 lakh and Rs 80 lakh was made in 1.09 crore accounts.

6. Net tax revenue of 2013-14 was Rs 11.38 lakh crore.

7. Out of 76 lakh individual assessees declaring income more than Rs 5 lakh, 56 lakh are salaried.

8. 1.95 crore individuals showed income between Rs 2.5 lakh to Rs 5 lakh.

9. Rate of growth of advance tax in Personal I-T is 34.8% in last three quarters of this financial year.

10. Holding period for long term capital gain lowered to 2 years

11. Propose to have carry-forward of MAT for 15 years.

12. Capital gains tax to be exempted for persons holding land from which land was pooled for creation of state capital of Telangana.

13. Corporate tax: In order to make MSME companies more viable, propose to reduce tax for small companies of turnover of up to 16. Rs 50 crore to 25%. About 67 lakh companies fall in this category. 96% of companies to get this benefit.

14. Propose to reduce basic customs duty for LNG to 2.5% from 5%

15. SIT on black money suggested no cash transactions of more than Rs 3 lakh. Govt has accepted this proposal.

16. Income Tax Act to be amended.  No transaction above Rs 3 lakh to be permitted in cash.

17. Limit of cash donation by charitable trust reduced to Rs 2,000 from Rs 10,000.

18. Net revenue loss in direct tax could be Rs. 20,000 crore.

19. India’s tax to GDP ratio is not favourable.

20. Out of 13.14 lakh registered companies, only 5.97 lakh companies have filed returns for 2016-17.

Personal income tax

1. Existing rate of tax for individuals between Rs.  2.5- Rs 5 lakh reduced to 5% from 10%

2. All other categories of tax payers in subsequent brackets will get benefit of Rs 12,500.

3. Simple one page return for people with annual income of Rs. 5 lakh other than business income.

4. People filing I-T returns for the first time will not come under govt. scrutiny5. 

5. 10% surcharge on individual income above Rs. 50 lakh and up to Rs 1 crore to make up for Rs 15,000 crore loss due to  cut in personal I-T rate. 15 surcharge on individual income above Rs. 1 crore to remain.

Important Reasearch Organisations and Their Headquarters (Part-II) For Governments Exam

Indian Veterinary Research  Institute (Izzatnagar – UP)

National  Aerospace  Laboratory (Bengaluru)

National Biological Laboratory (Palampur – HP)

National Chemical Laboratory (Pune – Maharashtra)

National Dairy Research Institute (Karnal)

National Environment Engineering Research Institute (Nagpur – Maharashtra)

National Geophysical Research Institute (Hyderabad – Andhra Pradesh)

National Institute of Oceanography (Panaji – Goa)

National Metallurgical Laboratory (Jamshedpur – Jharkhand)

National Physical Laboratory (New Delhi)

National Botanical Research Institute (Lucknow)

Industrial Toxicological Research Centre (Lucknow – UP)

Indian Association for Cultivation of sciences (Kolkata)\

King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai)

All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health (Kolkata)

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (New Delhi)

All India Malaria Institute (New Delhi)

Haffkine Institute (Mumbai)

Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research (Jamnagar – Gujarat)

National Institute of Communicable Diseases (Delhi)

National Institute of TB and Respiratory Diseases(Delhi

Central Institute of Research in Indigenous Systems of Medicine (Jamnagar – Gujarat)

International Advanced Centre for Powder Metallurgy (Hyderabad)

Indo-Uzbek Centre for Medical Applications of low-level Lasers (New Delhi)

Indian Cancer Research Centre (Mumbai)

Chittaranjan Cancer Research Centre (Kolkata)

National Institute of Virology (Pune)

Central Leprosy Training and  Research Institute (Chennai)

National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (Bengaluru)

Agarkar Research Institute (Pune)

Pasteur Institute (Coonoor)

Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute (Delhi)

Indian Grassland and Forest Research Institute (Jhansi)

Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (Chandigarh)

Tuberculosis Research Centre (Chennai)

All India Institute of Speech and Hearing (Mysore)

Cholera Research Centre (Kolkata)

National Institute of Occupational Health (Ahmedabad)

National Tuberculosis Institute (Bengaluru)

National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (Hyderabad)

Important Reasearch Organisations and Their Headquarters (Part-I) For Governments Exam

Name of the Organization (Location)

Central Building Research Institute (Roorkee – Uttarakhand)

Central Drug Research Institute (Lucknow – UP)

Central Electrochemical Research Institute (Karaikudi – Tamil Nadu)

Central Electronic Engineering Research Institute (Pilani – Rajasthan)

Central Food Technological Research Institute (Mysore – Karnataka)

Central Fuel Research Institute (Jealgora(Dhanbad) – Jharkhand)

Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (Jadavpur – West Bengal)

Central Indian Medicinal Plants Organization (Lucknow – UP)

Central Inland Fisheries Research Station (Barrackpore – West Bengal)

Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (Willingdon Island, Kochi– Kerala)

Central Jute Technological Research Institute (Kolkata – West Bengal)

Central Leather Research Institute (Chennai)

Central Marine Fisheries Institute (  Kochi– South India)

Central Mining Research Station (Dhanbad)

Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (Durgapur – West Bengal)

Central Road Research Institute (New Delhi)

Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (Karnal)

Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute (Bhavnagar – Gujarat)

Central Scientific Instruments Organization (Chandigarh)

Central Rice Research Station (Cuttack)

Central Potato Research Institute (Shimla)

Central Vegetable Breeding Station (Kullu)

Central Coconut Research Station (Kayamkulam – Kerala)

Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (Mumbai)

Indian Institute of Experimental Medicine (Kolkata)

Indian Institute of Petroleum (Dehradun – Uttarakhand)

Indian Agricultural Research Institute (New Delhi)

Indian Institute of Science (Bengaluru – Karnataka)

National Sugar Institute (Kanpur – UP)

Indian Lac Research Institute (Ranchi – Jharkhand)

Indian School of Mines and Applied Geology (Dhanbad)

Indian Institute of Astrophysics (Bengaluru)

Most Important Abbreviation From Union Budget 2017-18

As you all know that Budget was presented today by our Finance Minister, Arun Jaitley. It is very important for competitive examination and we have filtered all the Important Abbreviations from the document.

So here we present the most important ones for you all.

1. IMF- International Monetary Fund 

2. FDI- Foreign Direct Investment 

3. CPI- Consumer Price Index 

4. GDP- Gross Domestic Product 

5. FCNR- Foreign Currency (Non-Resident) Account

6. GST- Goods and Service Tax

7. TEC India- Transform, Energise and Clean India

8. PACS- Primary Agriculture Credit Societies  

9. KVKs- Krishi Vigyan Kendras

10. NAM- National Agricultural Market 

11. APMC- Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee 

12. MGNREGA- Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Gurantee Act

13. PMGSY- Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana 

14. PMEGP- Prime Minister's Employment Generation Programme

15. NRDWP- National Rural Drinking Water Programme

16. PMKK- Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendras 

17. SANKALP- Skill Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion programme 

18. STRIVE- Skill Strengthening for Industrial Value Enhancement 

19. NTA- National Testing Agency

20. ICDS- Integrated Child Development Services

21. IRCTC- Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation

22. TIES- Trade Infrastructure for Export Scheme 

23. FIPB- Foreign Investment Promotion Board

24. CERT-Fin- Computer Emergency Response Team for our Financial Sector

25. IRFC- Indian Railway Finance Corporation Limited 

26. FFO- Further Fund Offering 

27. PMMY- Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana 

28. BHIM- Bharat Interface for Money

29. UPI- Unified Payment Interface

30. USSD- Unstructured Supplementary Service Data

31. IMPS- Immediate Payment Service 

32. SIDBI- Small Industries Development Bank of India

33. DBT- Direct Benefit Transfer  

34. FRBM- Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act

35. MAT- Minimum Alternate Tax  

36. MSE- Medium and Small Enterprises 

37. NPA- Non-Performing Asset

38. MSME- Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises 

39. SIT- Special Investigation Team 

40. FPI- Foreign Portfolio Investor

41. TDS- Tax Deducted at Source

42. QIBs- Qualified Institutional Buyers

43. SEBI- Securities and Exchange Board of India

44. RBI- Reserve Bank of India

45. CBDT- Central Board of Direct Taxation

46. IPO- Initial Public Offering 

47. HUF- Hindu Undivided Family 

48. OECD- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 

49. EBITDA- Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortisation

50. TCS- Tax Collection at Source  

51. FTC- Foreign Tax Credit 

52. MPEDA- Marine Products Export Development Authority

53. APDEA- Anchorage Police Department Employees Association 

54. AAR- Authority for Advance Ruling

55. FMV- Full Motion Video

56. FEMA- Foreign Exchange Management Act 

57. LED- Light-Emitting Diode 

58. RCS- Regional Connectivity Scheme 

59. PCBs- Printed Circuit Boards 

60. VPEG- Vinyl Polyethylene Glycol 

61. MTA- Medium Quality Terephthalic Acid

62. QTA- Qualified Terephthalic Acid

63. NSSF- National Small Savings Fund  

Public Finance (Part-II)


A. Tax revenue – It consists of the proceeds of taxes & other duties levied by the government. The various taxes that are imposed by a government can be categorised into two groups.

1. Direct Taxes

2. Indirect Taxes

1. Direct taxes – Direct Taxes are those taxes which are paid by the same person on whom they have been imposed. Tax burden cannot be shifted on to others.

Example- Income Tax, wealth tax.

2. Indirect taxes – Those taxes whose burden (partial or whole) can be shifted.

Example- Excise duty.

Note- the Basis of classifying taxes into direct tax & Indirect tax is whether the burden of the tax is shiftable to others or not.

B. Non-Tax revenue – It includes receipts from sources other than taxes. The main sources of non-tax revenues are -Interest, Profits & dividends, Fees & fines, Special assessment, Gifts & grants, Escheats

Capital receipts- Capital receipts are defined as any receipt of the government which either creates a liability or leads to the reduction in assets. Capital receipts include the following 3 items.

Recovery of loans


Small savings

Budget expenditure – It refers to the estimated expenditure of the government under various heads. In India, it is classified into two categories.

1. Revenue expenditure

2. Capital expenditure

Revenue Expenditure – It refers to all those expenditures of the government which

do not result in a creation of physical or financial assets.

do not cause any reduction in liability of the government.

It relates to those expenses incurred for the normal functioning of the Government departments & provision of various services, interest payments on debt incurred by government & grants given to state government & other parties.

Capital expenditure – An expenditure which either creates an Asset or reduces liability is called capital expenditure. It consists mainly of expenditure on Acquisition of Assets like land, buildings, machinery, equipment, investments in shares, etc. & loans and advances granted by the central government to state & union territory government, government companies, corporation & other parties.

Other classifications of Public Expenditure:- 

1. Plan Expenditure and Non-plan expenditure:-Public expenditure is classified as plan expenditure and non-plan expenditure. 

Plan expenditure- Plan expenditure refers to that expenditure which is provided in the budget to be incurred on the programmes. For example, expenditure on agriculture, power, communication, industry, transport, general economic and social services etc.

Non-plan expenditure- It refers to the government expenditure other than the expenditure related to the plan of the government. Such an expenditure is a must for every Country having planning or no planning e.g. expenditure on police, judiciary, military, expenditure on normal running of government departments, expenditure on relief measures for earthquake/flood victims. 

2. Developmental Expenditure and Non-Developmental Expenditure:- Public expenditure is also classified as development expenditure and non-development expenditure. 

Development expenditure- It refers to expenditure on activities which are directly related to the economic and social development of the country. This includes expenditure on education, agricultural and industrial development, rural development, social welfare, scientific research etc. Such expenditure it not a part of the essential functioning of the government. It directly contributes to the development of the economy. It adds to the flow of goods and services. 

Non-development expenditure- It refers to expenditure incurred on essential general services of the Government such expenditure is essential from the administrative point of view. Expenditure on police. Judiciary, defence, general administration, interest, payments tax collection, subsidies on food etc. fall under this category.

Public Finance (Part-I) 


Meaning of Budget – Government budget is an annual statement, showing the item-wise estimation of receipts & expenditure during a fiscal year.

Elements of Budget 
1. It is a statement that shows estimated receipts & estimated expenditure during a fiscal year.
2. It shows estimates of government receipts & expenditure during a fixed period generally in a year.
3. Budget requires the approval by the parliament.

Objectives of Government Budget 
1. Reallocation of resources
2. Redistribution of income & wealth 
3. Economic stability
4. Management of public Enterprises
5. Promotion of economic development

NOTE-In short, a budget is a powerful weapon in the hands of government through which it can affect the generation, distribution & spending of National Income.

Structure of the Budget – The components of budget can also be categorised according to receipts & expenditures. On this basis two broad components are as follows:-
A. Budget receipts
B. Budget expenditure

Budget receipts- It refers of estimated money receipts of the government from all sources during the fiscal year.
Budget receipts are classified as
1. Revenue receipts
2. Capital receipts

Revenue receipts- It refers to those receipts of the government which neither create a liability nor lead to reduction in assets.
For example- revenue from taxes is a revenue receipt as it does involve any corresponding liability for the government.
Tax is a unilateral (one-sided) compulsory payment by people to the government. Taxes do not have to be repaid by the government in future.



Europeans reached the Indian shores in search of wealth and power. In 1498, Portuguese traders became the first to discover the sea route to India when a Portuguese voyager arrived at Calicut (modern Kozhikode, Kerala) on the western coast of India. The Dutch followed them in 1595, the English in 1600, and at last, the French in 1664. All these Europeans came to India for free trade.
The Europeans nations established various commercial companies, such as the East India Company in England founded in 1600 and Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie – the United East India Company in the Netherlands – founded in 1602. These companies were formed to capture the spice trade by breaking the monopoly of Portuguese in Asia.

Rise of Autonomous States
In the eighteenth century, when the Mughal Empire declined, various autonomous states were established such as in Bengal (under Murshid Quli Khan), Oudh or Awadh (under Sadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk), Hyderabad (under Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah), Carnatic (under Churaman and Surajmal) and the Sikhs (under Ranjit Singh).

In 1498, Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese voyager, became the first European to discover the sea route to India. He arrived at Calicut on 27 May 1498. To secure the trade of spices and to look for probable Christian converts, the Portuguese challenged Arab supremacy in the Indian Ocean. They fitted their galleons with powerful cannons and established a network of strategic trading posts along the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. They soon set up political supremacy along the west coast of India. After Vasco da Gama, Captain General Alfonso de Albuquerque captured Goa in 1510 and made Goa as the centre of their commercial and political power. Goa was under their control for about four and a half centuries.
Afonso de Albuquerque was the second governor of the Portuguese India and is known as founder of Portuguese colonial empire in India
Albuquerque is also known to have abolished the practice of Sati in Goa.

The first Dutch fleet reached India in the year 1595. They formed Dutch East India Company in 1602, but they could not maintain their influence for very long period. However, they had a large supply of capital and support from their government with which they ousted the British from the East Indies (Indonesia). They also managed to establish trading factories along the Indian coast. They established their first factory in Masulipatnam (1605), followed by factories in Pulicat (1610), Surat (1616), Bimlipatnam (1641), Karaikal (1645), Chinsura (1653), Kasimbazar (1658), Baranagore (1658), Patna and Balasore (both 1658) and Cochin (1663). These became the centres of international trade in spices, cotton, sugar raw silk, calico and indigo. They were welcomed by the Indian rulers in order to put them against the Portuguese. In 1619, they were granted permission by the Mughal emperor Jahangir to trade at Surat on the west coast and Hoogly in the east. The Dutch supremacy ended with their defeat at the hands of the English in the Battle of Bedera in 1759.


In 1600, the English East India Company was established through a charter signed by Queen Elizabeth I in 1600. The charter granted the company the permission to trade with India. In 1608, Captain Hawkins visited the court of Jahangir but he was denied any trading rights. However, in 1619, when Sir Thomas Roe visited the court, they were allowed to set up their first factory in Surat(authorised factory). Gradually, the company was successful in setting up its factories at other places also such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.’
The agents of the English Company soon became familiar with Indian customs and languages. They learnt Persian, the official language of the Mughals. The English agents of this period lived like Indians, intermarried Indians, and most of them settled here permanently. All this gave the English an edge over their other European rivals.
The English set up their factories in Masulipatnam (1611), Agra, Ahmedabad, Baroda, Broach (1619), Armagaon near Pulicat (1626), Hariharpur and Balasore (1633), Patna, Dakha, Kasimbazar (1835), Fort St George in Chennai (1639)Hoogli (1651), settlements in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa (1658), Mumbai (1668) and Sutanuti (1690), Kalikota and Govindpur (1698). Later they founded the city of Kolkata which included the regions of Sutanuti, Kalikota and Govindpur. In 1700, they fortified the factory at Sutanati and named it Fort William. In 1686, the English fought the war against the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. They lost all their control over the settlements and factories in India to the Mughals. They were pardoned when they surrendered in 1690. In 1691, they were granted a Farman by the Mughal emperor. They exempted from paying customs duties in Bengal through this Farman.

In 1717, the Mughal emperor, Farukhsiyar (1713 – 1719), granted the British another Farman, thus extending the privilege to British in Gujarat and Deccan – who by then had already established themselves in the south and the west – a grant of 38 villages near Kolkata, acknowledging their importance to the continuity of international trade in the Bengal economy. As the Dutch and the French, the British also brought silver bullion and copper to pay for transactions, helping the smooth functioning of the Mughal revenue system and increasing the benefits of local artisans and traders. The fortified warehouses of the British brought extraterritorial status, which enabled them to administer their own civil and criminal laws and offered numerous employment opportunities as well as an asylum to foreigners and Indians. The British factories successfully competed with their rivals as their size and population grew. The original clusters of fishing villages (Chennai and Kolkata) and the series of islands (Mumbai) became the headquarters of the British administrative zones or presidencies as they generally came to be known. The factories and their immediate environs, known as the white town, represented the actual and symbolic pre-eminence of the British is terms of their political power as well as their cultural values and social practices. Meanwhile, their Indian collaborators lived in the ‘black town’ separated from the factories by several kilometres.

Spread of British on East and West Coast of India during the seventeenth century
Anglo-Dutch hostilities from 1652 to 1654 drew the English and the Portuguese closer on the western coast of India. 
According to a secret article in the marriage treaty of 1661 with Portugal, the Portuguese possessions in the East were guaranteed by England against the Dutch, and the island of Mumbai was included as a part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza, the new queen of Charles II. In 1668, Charles II transferred Mumbai to the East India Company on an annual payment of 10 pounds. Mumbai gradually rose to prosperity during the administration of sir George Oxenden (1662 – 1669), Gerald Aungier (1669 – 1677), and Sir John Child (1682 – 1690). In 1687, the seat of the western Presidency was shifted from Surat to Mumbai. In 1611, the English started a factory in the south-east at Masulipatnam. In 1632, they obtained Golden Farman from Sultan of Golconda and in 1639 were permitted to build a fortified factory in Chennai, known as Fort St George, which later superseded Masulipatnam as the headquarters of the English in the East coast.

Important facts
In, 1608, First British ship Hector reached India
In 1611, Captain Middleton was able to get permission to start a factory in Surat from the local Mughal governors. But he needed to fight a battle with the Portuguese. Under him, the British defeated Portuguese in 1611 in the Battle of Bombay.
First English factory in Bengal was established at Hoogly 1651, with the permission of Shahsuja and they were also granted Privileges of free trade for a payment of Rs 3000

The French commercial interest – Compagnie des Indes Orientales (East India Company, founded in 1664) – came late but the French also established themselves in India, emulating the precedents set by their competitors, as they founded their enclave at Pondicherry (Puducherry) on the Coromandel Coast. In 1664, they set up centres near Chennai and Chandernagore on the Hoogly to trade with India. They also established naval bases in the islands of Bourbon and Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. Initially, they flourished till 1706 but afterwards declined until 1720. After 1720, it was because of Governors Lenoir and Dumas that the French regrouped in India. However, during 1742, the French Governor Dupleix started repulsing English power, which resulted in the Carnatic wars and eventually the defeat of the French.

Besides the presence of the Portuguese, Dutch, British and French, there were two lesser but noteworthy colonial groups. In 1616, the East India Company of Denmark reached Indian coasts and established settlements in Tranquebar in Tamil Nadu (1620) and Serampore in Bengal (1676). Danish entrepreneurs established themselves at several ports on the Malabar and Coromandel coasts, in the vicinity of Kolkata and inland at Patna, between 1695 and 1740. Austrian enterprises were set up in the 1720s in the vicinity of Surat, in southeastern Gujarat. As with the other non-British enterprises, the Danish and Austrian enclaves were taken over by the British between 1765 and 1815.