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Showing posts with label Reasoning. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Reasoning. Show all posts

26 October, 2016

Reasoning Puzzles (Study Notes)

Today we’ll discuss about Puzzle. This topic is can fetch you marks easily but you need to know the right concepts and types of questions to practice. 

In banking exams Puzzle questions can be asked in itself or Data Sufficiency. Usually 10-12 questions can be asked from this topic, thus it can fetch you easy marks with right practice.

Introduction: From practical experience and the general trends, it can be asserted that the question on “puzzle” can be generally classified into the following types of problems:-

1. Simple problems of categorization

2. Arrangement problems

3. Comparison Problems

4. Blood Relations

5. Blood Relations with professions

6. Conditional selection

7. Miscellaneous problems

In the puzzles, you shall be given fast-working and efficient methods for all the types of problems above.

Preliminary steps 

1. First of all, take a quick glance at the question. This would need not more than a couple of seconds.

2. After performing this step you would develop a general idea as to what the general theme of the problem is.

3. Next determine the usefulness of each of the information and classify them accordingly into “actual information” or “useful secondary information” or Negative information as the case may be.

This can be one in the following way: 

(A) Useful secondary information: Usually the first couple of sentence of the given data are such that they give you some basic information that is essential to give you the general idea of the situation. These can be classified as useful secondary information.

(B) Actual information: Whatever remains after putting aside the useful secondary information can be categorized as actual information. While trying to solve a problem, one should begin with the actual information while the useful secondary information should be borne in mind.

(c) Negative Information: A part of the actual information may consist of negative sentences or negative information. A negative information does not inform us anything exactly but it gives a chance to eliminate a possibility. Sentences like “B is not the mother of A” or “H is not a hill-station” are called negative information.

(1) Simple problems of categorization

The most simple type of problems in this lesson falls under this category where you would be supposed to analyse the given data and simply place different items in different categories according to the given information.

Example (i): There are six cities A, B, C, D, E and F and they belong to atleast one of the types of places i.e. Historical, Industrial and Hill station. B is not an industrial area. C and F belongs to all types of places. E is both industrial and Hill station. A is not a hill station. B and E are not historical places. D is not an industrial city. A and D are not historical cities. A and B are not alike.

Solution:

(Here since A is not a hill station, we put a cross under a column and infront of Hill station Row, this would reduce the number of choices for us. (similarly for all the other options)

Example (ii) Four friends Ankit, Amit, Akash and Ajay went to four different cities Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad and Nagpur for interview in four different companies TCS, Wipro, IBM and HCL. But not in the same order. 

Ankit was not invited by TCS. Amit did not go to Hyderabad and was not invited by IBM and TCS. IBM conducted in Nagpur. Akash went to Mumbai. Ankit did not go to Nagpur and was not invited by HCL. 

(2)Arrangement problems: In this type of questions, the problems is essentially of arranging a group of people, objects etc. According to the given specifications. Arrangement problems can be of two types (i) Linear arrangement and (ii) Circular Arrangement. 

The questions of this type are also referred to as “Seating Arrangement

Example: Six persons A, B, C, D, E and F are seating in two rows, three in each. 

E is not at the end of any row. 

D is second to the left of F.

C, the neighbour of E, is sitting diagonally opposite to D. 

B is the neighbour of F. 

Solutions:  

(3) Problem on Comparison: In these questions a comparison of different objects or persons have to be made and conclusions have to be arrived on the basis of comparison. 

Comparison can be made: 

(i) Comparison of heights 

(ii) Comparison of marks 

(iii) Comparison of age, etc.

You may use the following symbols for comparison: 

Example: Among four friends A, B, C and D. A is taller than, who is shorter than D. D is not the tallest and A is shorter than D.

Solutions: C > D > A > B or  C

                D

                A

                B

(Tallest to shortest, from above to below) 

(4) Problems on Blood Relations: Problems of this type involve analysis of certain blood relations and then inferring on the basis of the given information. 

Example: All the six members of a family A, B C, D, E and F are travelling together. B is the son of C but C is not the mother of B. A and C are a married couple. E is the brother of C. D is the daughter of A. F is the brother of B. 

Solutions: 

(5) Problems on Blood Relations with professions: These problems are very much similar to the problems on Blood Relations. Only difference is that in these questions another dimension is added. The professions of various family members are also incorporated into the data to make it complex and confusing. 

Example: There is a group of six persons A, B, C, D, E and F in a family. They are psychologist, Manager, Lawyer, Jeweller, Doctor and Engineer. 

(i) The doctor is the grandfather of F, who is a psychologist 

(ii) The manager, D is married to A. 

(iii) C, the Jeweller, is married to the lawyer. 

(iv) B is the mother of F and E.

(v) There are two married couples in the family. 

Solutions: 

(6) Problems on conditional selection: In this type of questions, a group of objects or persons have to be selected from a given longer group, according to some given restrictions. 

Example: Five friends P, Q, R, S and T travelled to five different cities of Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi, Bengaluru and Hyderabad by different modes of transport of Bus, Train, Aeroplane, Car and Boat from Mumbai. But not necessary in the same order. 

(a) The person who travelled to Delhi did not travel by Boat. 

(b) R went to Bengaluru by car and Q went to Kolkata by Aeroplane

(c) S travelled by Boat whereas T travelled by train. 

(d) Mumbai is not connected by Bus to Delhi and Chennai. 

(7) Miscellaneous Problems: Till now we have covered different types of puzzles. But in miscellaneous problems all types are covered. 

Example: There are five persons P, Q, R, S and T. One is a football, one is a chess player and one is a hockey player. P and S are unmarried ladies and do not participate in any game. None of the ladies plays chess or Football. There is a married couple in which T is the husband. Q is the brother of R and is neither a chess player nor a hockey player.

Solutions: 

Here, T and R are married couple. Where, T is husband and R is wife. 

Points to Remember

(1) In puzzles, first of all collect all the direct information.

(2) And they should be arranged in tabular format.

(3) After that point out all the negative information and mark it in your table according to given information.

(4) Other facts can be find out from the indirect information.

(5) The most important part is that in some condition there will be more than one possibility. 

(6) So, according to possibilities arrange them in the different tables.

(7) Reject all the tables which violates other information in puzzles.

(8) By following this process you can find the correct solutions.

(9) Puzzle are always tricky so, take care of every words and sentence. 

(10) By following this approach, you will be able to solve the puzzle with good accuracy and speed. 

19 October, 2016

Reasoning Study Notes: Seating Arrangement

Dear Readers,

Today we’ll discuss about Seating Arrangement. This topic is can fetch you marks easily but you need to know the right concepts and types of questions to practice. 

In banking exams Seating Arrangement questions can be asked in itself or Data Sufficiency. Usually 10-12 questions can be asked from this topic, thus it can fetch you easy marks with right practice.

Introduction

⇒ In seating arrangement, we are generally asked to arrange a group of people according to the given conditions. They may have to be seated around a table, the table could be of any shape-circular, square, rectangular, pentagonal or any other. To solve seating arrangement problems on the basis of the information given in the equation.

⇒ It is one of the important part of the reasoning section for any competitive exam (specially Bank PO). In this part, questions are based on set of information containing set of conditions which gives hidden information followed by set of questions.

⇒ These type of questions judge the ability of a candidates to analyze the information and solve the questions by the help of pictorial figures.

CONCEPTS:

☞ Linear arrangement: - In this arrangement, there can be single row or parallel rows facing each other or opposite.

(i) 

(Directions if the people are facing north)

(ii) 

(Directions if the people are facing South)

(iii)  

(Directions if the people are seating parallel to each other facing South and North)

☞ Example: A, B, C, D, E, F and G are sitting in a row facing the North.

F is to the immediate right of E.

E is 4th to the right of G.

C is neighbor of B and D.

person who is third to the left of D is at one of the ends.

☞ Circular Arrangement: In this Arrangement, people are sitting around a circle facing towards or outside the centre.

(i) 

(ii) 

(iii) 

☞ Example: Abraham, Bittu, chris, Dilip, Ela, Fan, Gautam and Henry are sitting around a circle facing towards the centre. Dilip is second to the left of Fan and third to the right of Henry. Abraham is second to the right of Fan and immediate neighbor of Henry. Chris is second to the right of Bittu and Fan is third to the right of Bittu. Gautam is not an immediate neighbor of Fan.

☞ Rectangular/square Arrangement: In this Arrangement, people are sitting around a rectangle or square facing towards or outside the centre.

(i)

(ii)

 

(iii)

(People sitting at middle of the side, facing the centre and people sitting at edge/corner facing outside the centre)

☞ Example: Eight family members Dhruv, Garima, Avinash, Varsha, Aakash, Deepti, Charu and Moksh are sitting around a square table in such a way that two persons sit on each of the four sides of the table facing the centre. Members sitting on opposite sides are exactly facing opposite to each other.

(i) Aakash and Garima are exactly opposite to each other.

(ii) Deepti is immediately right to Garima.

(iii) Dhruv and Moksh are sitting on the same side.

(iv) Moksh is exactly opposite of Avinash, who is to the immediate left of Varsha.

(v) Dhruv is towards right of deepti.

☞ Single Dimensions: These are relatively straight forward questions. In these type, information  are arranged by following a kind of symmetry.

☞ Multi Dimensions: These type of questions are complex in nature. In these different information of same person are given i.e. their sex, city professions, marriage etc.

Important points to be noted during solving the questions:

☞ Step I: The data given in such questions specify the positions of some or all the individuals in arrangement. The positions are specified through conditions involving specified persons sitting (or not sitting) opposite each other or a particular person sitting to the right of left of another person etc.

☞ Step II: Once you read the data, first draw the shape (Circle, square, rectangle, pentagaon, etc) specified in the data and then mark the slots (empty spaces) in the sitting arrangement.

☞ Step III: Using all definite information, fill up as many slots (empty places) as possible. Means always be careful to choose the correct starting point. Those information which are (100%) confirm should be taken first.

☞ Step IV: Never assume anything in the questions.

☞ Step V: In case, if information cannot be use, mark that information and use them, later when the problems calls for it.

☞ Step VI: Now, move on the comparative information. Taking comparative information and consider all possibilities and choose the possibility which does not violate any condition.

☞ Step VII: Be careful with certain words like “not”, “only”, “who”, “and”.

☞ Step VIII:  Some gender defining terms are like “him”, “her”, “he”, “she” will help you decode the information.

Some specific type of statements:

☞ A is between B and C

⇒ In this case there are two possibilities

☞  A, who is 3rd to the left of B

 ☞ A, who is third to the right of B

☞ B is sitting to the immediate left of A, who is sitting to the immediate left of C.

 

☞ B, who is sitting to the immediate left of A and to the immediate right of C. 

☞ B and C are adjacent of A:-

 In this case there are two possibilities

An example of Seating Arrangement with Blood Relation:

☞ Example: J, P, Q, R, S, T, U and V are four married couples sitting in a circle facing the centre, the profession of the males within the group are lecturer, lawyer, doctor and scientist. Among the males, only R (the lawyer) and V (the scientist) are sitting together. Each man is seated besides his wife.

U the wife of the lecturer is seated second to the right of V. T is seated between U and V. P is the wife of the doctor. Q is not the doctor and imidiate neighbour of doctor. S is a male.

Important points to Remember:

☞ (1) The information like “A and B are sitting farthest from each other “or” A and B sit across the table” imply that A and B sit opposite to each other.

☞ (2) Go “Anticlockwise” if anybody’s right has to be located, and go “Clockwise” if somebody’s left has to be located.

☞ (3) Sometimes Questions demand a clear sense of direction, so you have to be well aware with the directional facts.

☞ (4) There shouldn’t be any confusion about relation and generation tree.

☞ (5) Sometimes in the seating Arrangement Geometry rules also applicable.

☞ Example: Ashok is 90° Right of Seema, who is 45° right of Ruchi

 

06 October, 2016

Reasoning Study Notes: Coding Decoding

Dear Readers,

Today we’ll discuss about Coding- Decoding. This topic is can fetch you marks easily but you need to know the right concepts and types of questions to practice.

In banking exams Coding Decoding questions can be asked in Data Sufficiency or there can be direct questions of coding-decoding itself. Usually 3-5 questions can be asked from this topic, thus it can fetch you easy marks with right practice.

Tips:

1. Try to focus on the thinking behind the solution.

Example 1: If GLORIOUS is coded as GOLRIOSU, code ‘JUDICIAL’?
Solution: This doesn’t need any explanation. A simple question based on observation.
As G L O R I O U S is coded as G O L R I O S U, we are that second and third letters are interchanged, again last two letters are also interchanged as shown below.
 
Using the same logic, the word J U D I C I A L is coded as J D U I C I L A

Example 2: If PEN is written as ‘+X’ and ENT is written as ‘X–’ in a certain code, how is TEN written in the same code?
Solution: The first thing to notice is that PEN has three characters while +X has only two. So two characters of PEN have been replaced by a single character. The same pattern can be seen in the case of ENT.
We must look for something common in the two of them PEN and ENT.
PEN = “+X”
ENT = “X–”
Common feature in both the above are EN & X.
So P = +, EN = X & T = –
TEN = –X

2. LETTER CODING:
Here letters are assigned codes according to a set pattern or rule concerning the movement or reordering / rearranging of letters and you need to detect this rule to decode a massage. Sometimes, specific codes are assigned to particular letters without any set pattern. Observe a few examples to know the various reordering or rearranging techniques.

Direction for example 3: In these questions the real alphabets in a word are replaced by certain other alphabets according to a specific rule to form its code.
Example 3: In a code language if TRAINS is coded as RTIASN, how PISTOL will be coded in the same language?
(a) SITLOP
(b) IPSTLO
(c) SIPTLO
(d) IPTSLO

Solution: If we compare the basic word {TRAINS} with the coded word {RTIASN}, we would see that the letters used in the word are same as in the basic word but their order of placement has been changed. Letter T at first position of the basic word has been placed at second position in the coded word and the letter R at the second position has been placed in the first position.
It means that in this question, letters of the basic word have been interchanged i.e. first letter with second, third with the fourth and so on. And thus we get the coded word. So PISTOL will be coded as IPTSLO. Hence option (d) is the answer.

3. NUMBER CODING:
Numerical code is given or value is assigned to a word. Here the only way to relate the alphabets & numbers is by associating the positions of the letters in the English alphabet. Sometimes any mathematical operation like addition or subtraction can be performed using the position of the letters. Direct coding questions can also be asked.

Direction for example 4: In this question, either numerical code values are assigned to a word or alphabetical code letters are assigned to the numbers.

Example 4: If PAINT is coded as 74128 and EXCEL is coded as 93596, then how would you encode ACCEPT?
(a) 455978
(b) 547978
(c) 554978
(d) 735961

Solution: In the given code the alphabets have been coded as follows:
P     A     I     N     T     E     X     C     L
7     4     1     2     8     9     3     5     6
So, in ACCEPT, A is coded as 4, C as 5, E as 9, P as 7 and T as 8. Hence the correct code is 455978 and therefore the answer is Choice (a).

4. MIXED LETTER/NUMBER CODING:
Some messages are given in the coded language and the code for a particular word or message is asked. To analyze such codes, any two messages bearing a common word are picked up. The common code number are picked up. Proceed in the similar fashion by picking up are possible combination of two, the entire message can be decoded.

Example 5: If ‘tee see pee’ means ‘drink fruit juice’; ‘see kee lee’ means ‘juice is sweet’ and ‘lee ree mee’ means ‘he is intelligent’, which word in that language means ‘swee’?
(a) see
(b) kee
(c) lee
(d) pee

Solution: In the first and second statement, the common word is ‘juice’ and the common code word is ‘see’. So, ‘see’ means ‘juice’.
In the second and third statements, the common word is ‘is’ and the common code is ‘lee’. So ‘lee’ means ‘is’. Thus in the second statement, the remaining word ‘sweet’ is coded as ‘kee’. Hence the answer is choice (b).

Example 6: In a certain code, ‘786’ means ‘study very hard’, ‘958’ means ‘hard work pays’ and ‘645’ means ‘study and work’. Which of the following is the code for ‘very’?
(a) 8
(b) 6
(c) 7
(d) Cannot be determined

Solution: Based on the same logic as used in the above question, the code for ‘very’ can be found out to be ‘7’, hence the answer is choice (c).

5. Coding decoding questions can also be asked in following types, these types were recently asked in SBI Exam and it puzzled many students. But if you read the instructions carefully and practice it, you can easily solve it.

Type: Symbols and Places of Digits

Example 6 : Triangle represents ∆ (1) and circle represents ○ (0). If triangle appears in unit's place then only its value is 0. If it appears in 10's place its value is 1 and when it appears in 100’s place is doubled to 2 like that it continues. Questions based on this
For example:
∆ ○ =0+0=0
∆○∆∆∆= 8+0+2+1+0=11

6.1. How will you represent ‘29’ in this code language?
(a) ∆∆∆○∆∆
(b) ○○∆∆∆○○
(c) ∆∆∆∆∆∆○
(d) ∆○∆○∆○∆
(e) ∆○∆∆○○ ○

Solution: (a)
∆∆∆○∆∆ = 16+8+4+0+1+0=29

6.2. What will be the code for  ○∆○∆○∆○ ?
(a) 12
(b)74
(c)21
(d)16
(e)4

Solution: (c)
○∆○∆○∆○ = 0+16+0+4+0+1+0=21

Type : (Tabular) Coding based on Conditions

Example 7: In each question below is given a group of numbers separated by comma (,). They are followed by four combinations of letters/symbols numbered (1), (2), (3) and (4). You have to find out which of the given combinations correctly represents the group of numbers based on the following coding system and mark the new code of that combination as the answer. If no condition is applicable coding will be according to the table.  If none of the four combinations correctly represents the group of numbers, mark ‘None of the above’, as the answer.

Conditions:
1) If the first number is a prime and the last number is a composite number then their codes are to be interchanged.
2) If both the first and the last number is Prime both are to be coded as $.
3) If both the first and the last letters are Composite and in between there are two or more Prime numbers then Prime numbers are to be coded as A.
4) If the first number is composite and the last number is a prime number, both are to be coded as the code for the composite number.

7.1.  4, 17, 88, 16, 3
(a) #,K,&,$,#
(b) A,K,&,$,#
(c) A,K,&,$,A
(d) $,K,&,$,$
(e) None of the above.

Solution: (a)
In 4,17,88,16,3 the first number is a composite and last is a prime; so codes will be according to condition (4).

7.2.  44, 11, 4, 2, 8
(a) $,S,#,C,$
(b) A, S,#,C,A
(c) B, S,#,C,@
(d) @,S,#,C,B
(e) None of the above

Solution: (d)
Given set of numbers are 44,11,4,2,8, here both first and last numbers are composite and there is only one prime number in between them. Hence no condition will apply and the codes are according to the given symbol table.

20 September, 2016

Reasoning Study Notes: Blood Relation

Blood Relation can be really easy topic if you have the right approach. Comparatively among other topics of reasoning blood relations can fetch you full marks. But with one silly mistake or if you don’t pay attention to a little information you can lose that easy mark.

So let us see the approach towards Blood Relation:
Generation Tree:

Here let us look at the Generation Tree or Family Tree of a person X:

Different Relations:

Let us understand different possible relations of X:

Paternal

Great Grand Father

Father’s Grand Father

Great Grand Mother

Father’s Grand Mother, Father’s Grand Father’s Wife

Grand Father

Father’s Father

Grand Mother

Father’s Mother, Father’s Father’s Wife

Uncle

Father’s Brother

Aunt

Father’s Sister

Sibling

Brother/Sister

Niece

Sibling’s Daughter

Nephew

Sibling’s Son

Children

Son/Daughter

Cousin

Father’s Sibling’s Children

Grandchildren

Children’s children

Great Grand Children

Children’s children’s children

Maternal

Great Grand Father

Mother’s Grand Father

Great Grand Mother

Mother’s Grand Mother, Mother’s Grand Father’s Wife

Grand Father

Mother’s Father

Grand Mother

Mother’s Mother, Mother’s Father’s Wife

Uncle

Mother’s Brother

Aunt

Mother’s Sister

Cousin

Mother’s Sibling’s Children

In-Laws (Relative of Wife’s or Husband’s)
 

Great Grand Father-in-Law

Wife’s Grand Father

Great Grand Mother-in-Law

Wife’s Grand Mother, Wife’s Grand Father’s Wife

Grand Father-in-Law

Wife’s Father

Grand Mother-in Law

Wife’s Mother, Wife’s Father’s Wife

Father-in-Law

Wife’s Father

Mother-in-Law

Wife’s Mother

Sister-in-Law

Wife’s Sister

Brother-in-Law

Wife’s Brother

Daughter-in-Law

Son’s Wife

Son-in-Law

Daughter’s Husband

 

Approach towards Blood Relation Questions:

Read the question or instruction carefully.

Try to resolve the relation step by step. Always solve statement in generation. By this approach it will be less puzzling for you and time saving.

Example: Looking at a picture he said, ‘He is my grandmother’s daughter-in-law’s only son’s wife’

Grandmother’s daughter-in-law is his mother. Mother’s only son is he himself. So the the person in the picture is his wife.

If in the question paternal or maternal is not clearly mentioned, then solve the question assuming paternal side.

Always be careful about “He’, “She”, “His”, “Her”. Because this we can determine gender.

Try to draw the family tree while solving the questions; it reduces the chances of error and confusion.

16 September, 2016

Reasoning Study Notes: Machine Input-Output

In machine input-output, the basic problem is the problem of time. You can obviously get the logic if you are not bound by time, but the challenge is to get the logic as quickly as possible and get done with the questions to score more.

Here you can learn how to solve machine input by saving your time

The general instruction of what a machine input-output question says are:

“When a word and number arrangement machine is given an input line words and number, it arranges them following a particular rule. The following is the illustration of input and re-arrangement”

 

Example: Input: name 37 11 is his 42 Khan 28

Step I:is name 37 11 his 42 Khan 28

Step II:is 42 name 37 11 his Khan 28

Step III:is 42 his name 37 11 Khan 28

Step IV:is 42 his 37 name 11 Khan 28

Step V: is 42 his 37 Khan name 11 28

Step VI:is 42 his 37 Khan 28 name 11

VIth step is the last step.

The last step is the final output the machine.

So what has happened in this example of VI Steps?

Input is given to you and it is simplified in the subsequent steps. By simplified we mean they’ve applied a certain logic, if you know questions of series, the series in made on a certain logic and by analysing that logic you get to know the next value in that series. Similarly, in questions of Machine Input Output, you have to analyse the given Input and its subsequent steps and understand or find out the logic behind it. It means your job is to identify the logic through which the input-output machine has transformed the input to output and you have to apply the same logic in the subsequent step of questions asked. And the last step is the final output.

FIND THE LOGIC!!!

Compare quickly the Input and the final step and try to deduce the logic through which the machine has produced the output.

Example: Input: 96 amber cola 84 new 6

Step I: 6 96 cola 84 new amber

Step II: 6 84 96 new cola amber

Step II is the final output

Here we can see that the logic applied is arranging the numbers in ascending order (right to left) and arranging the alphabets in alphabetical order (left to right).

Observe the happenings in the subsequent step. Is the machine shifting only 1 item at a time or is it shifting two or more?

Example: Input: 96 amber cola 84 new 6

Step I: 6 96 cola 84 new amber

Step II: 6 84 96 new cola amber

Step II is the final output

In this example, the machine is shifting two items at a time, i.e. a number and a word in each step.

Observe the direction in which shifting has taken place- left to right, right to left.

Example: Input: 96 amber cola 84 new 6

Step I: 6 96 cola 84 new amber

Step II: 6 84 96 new cola amber

Step II is the final output

Here the number are arranged from left to right direction and words are arranged in right to left direction

Quickly and carefully analyse and try to discriminate according to the first letter of given words is they are in alphabetical sequence or is there any particular arrangement related to vowels and consonants and analyse the numbers too.

Example: Input: assure 7 new 2 email 16 demand 3 quit 12 20 urban

Step I: assure 2 7 new email 16 demand 3 quit 12 20 urban

Step II: assure 2 7 new email 16 3 quit 20 urban demand 12

Step III: assure 2 email 3 7 new 16 quit 20 urban demand 12

Step IV: assure 2 email 3 7 quit 20 urban demand 12 new 16

Step V: assure 2 email 3 urban 7 quit 20 demand 12 new 16

Step VI: assure 2 email 3 urban 7 demand 12 new 16 quit 20

Step VI is the final output.

Logic: Here in each step a number and a word are arranged in pairs of Vowel+ Prime and Consonant +Composite. The words starting with vowels are arranged from left to right along with a prime number is ascending order. The words starting with a consonant are arranged from left to right (on the right end) in the next step along with a composite number is ascending order.