Showing posts with label biotechnology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label biotechnology. Show all posts

07 June, 2014

Syllabus For Gate Biotechnology

Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT)


Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series.

Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations,Laplace transforms, PDE- Laplace, heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations.


Microbiology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth and control; Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis); Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial diversity and characteristic features; Viruses.

Biochemistry: Biomolecules and their conformation; Weak inter-molecular interactions in biomacromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of single substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction.

Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes; Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extrachromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Population genetics; Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.
Process Biotechnology: Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass and primary/secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids, exo-polysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial production, purification and bioprocess application(s) of industrial enzymes; Production and purification of recombinant proteins on a large scale; Chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for bioconversion processes.
Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes; Bioremediation.

Bioprocess Engineering: Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Simple structured models; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Aeration and agitation; Mass transfer in bioreactors; Rheology of fermentation fluids; Scale-up concepts; Design of fermentation media; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation in bioreactors.

Plant and Animal Biotechnology: Special features and organization of plant cells; Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant products of industrial importance; Biochemistry of major metabolic pathways and products; Autotrophic and heterotrophic growth; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Cell suspension culture development: methodology, kinetics of growth and production formation, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root cultures and their cultivation. Techniques in raising transgencies.
Characteristics of animal cells: Metabolism, regulation and nutritional requirements for mass cultivation of animal cell cultures; Kinetics of cell growth and product formation and effect of shear force; Product and substrate transport; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Live stock improvement; Cloning in animals; Genetic engineering in animal cell culture; Animal cell preservation.

Immunology: The origin of immunology; Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; Antigen; B and T cells and Macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement; Antigen-antibody reaction; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hyper sensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.

Recombinant DNA Technology: Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors: plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation; Gene cloning; Expression of cloned gene; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; RAPD; RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy.

Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, ExPASy); Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Genomics and Proteomics (Large scale genome sequencing strategies; Comparative genomics; Understanding DNA microarrays and protein arrays); Molecular modeling and simulations (basic concepts including concept of force fields).

15 October, 2013

Exclusive and cheerful pics of biotech department of Delhi technological University

Hello friends,

Today i am posting the cheerful and hidden moments of Delhi technology university at the classes of biotechnology department.

These pics are just for fun moments ,not for insulting any one's emotions .
So don't mind it.


03 August, 2013

Why Indian Government is not caring of Biotechnology Sector as compare of other Engineering Stream

As a Student of Biotechnology,i would like to express my view about the worse condition of Biotechnology in India.I am doing my in Biotechnology in one of the prestigious college of India i.e., DELHI TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, but even after i feel worry about my future because whenever i search on Google " Biotechnology in India",everyone flatly says- It has no scope in India.
But I just want to ask why it has no scope in India as it has very much demand in the developed countries like USA,CHINA,GERMANY,CANADA and other Gulf countries etc.

The main reason is that of very less scope in India since Govt. is not putting up money in this sector for research and development. If you are extremely good and extraordinary then you may have a chance.That is why people join MBA after doing Biotechnology in India which has very less connection in terms of studies.
Note : There is no PSU for biotech graduates to join after graduation :( 
I just want to ask one question to our Indian Government that if you can't do anything to explore the job aspects of this emerging field then why did you introduce it in India ?
You should not only take care of machines engineering but you have to provide certain opportunities for the students who are dealing with living world engineering.If  leading countries in the world has better scope then you should also think about why are they one step ahead from us and why are they  supporting Biotechnology sector.In India , no one cares of Biotechnology but Indian Government should take certain initiative to do better for every graduate of Biotechnology in India as they can move forward to abroad countries where they have better future.
Although Indian Prime Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh also said students not to go abroad, but i just want to a ask him that if he has no plan or can't do anything to provide jobs for Biotechnology students then why they should not go to abroad ?