Showing posts with label competitive exams. Show all posts
Showing posts with label competitive exams. Show all posts

Sunday, July 18, 2021

How to reach Ion Digital Zone IDZ IIMT Campus Plot No 20-A, Knowledge Park-III, Greater Noida

Hello Friends

Today I will share another route of exam centre which is very far away from Delhi and it's better to go to centre on exam day only.

Today I am sharing the route of another TCS exam centre "ION Digital Zone IDZ ,IIMT Campus, Plot No 20-A, Knowledge Park-III, Greater Noida".
The route of exam centre is very easy and you can easily reach the centre on exam day.

1. First the common metro station is Botanical Garden Metro, so if you are from Delhi, then first reach botanical garden metro station. And if you are outsider, then first reach Delhi and read 1st point again.

2. After reaching Botanical garden metro station, then you should take bus which goes to Pari Chowk/sometimes direct to exam centre.

Fare : Botanical to Pari Chowk- 30 Rupees
           Pari Chowk to IIMT - 20 Rupees

3. If bus doesn't go direct to exam centre, then it will leave you to Pari Chowk, then you can take sharing auto there to IIMT exam centre which cost you around 20 rupees.

I hope this will help you out.
Best of luck for your exam.

Wednesday, June 2, 2021

Preparation Tips to Ace the IBPS Clerk Prelims Exam

The Institute of Banking Personnel Selection (IBPS) conducts a common recruitment exam for the recruitment of Clerks in the Participating Banks.  IBPS is one of the most reputed government organizations in India. Thus, a large number of applicants appear for the exam to secure government jobs offering an attractive IBPS Clerk Salary and various other perks/allowances. IBPS Clerk 2021 will be conducted in the coming days. Thus, it is advised to the candidates to start their preparation right away.  

Good Preparation Strategy is considered as one of the main reasons behind the selection of the candidates. On that note, let’s discuss the top preparation tips to ace the IBPS Clerk Prelims Exam.

IBPS Clerk Exam Preparation for the Numerical Ability

Numerical Ability is considered one of the toughest sections in the exam. It involves a lot of formulas and calculations which makes the section lengthy. To ace the section of the numerical ability, candidates can take the help of the following tips.

  • Focus on learning the basic concepts of each topic of the section

  • Master the tricks to answer a few important topics which are Number Series, Quadratic Equations, and Simplification & Approximation. The questions from these topics are asked every year. Thus, the candidates must learn the tricks to solve the questions in less time.

  • Maintain short notes of the formulas of the important topics and do the revision on a regular basis

  • Last but not least, practice topic-wise and sectional mock tests of this section to enhance your accuracy. 

Some of the important topics covered in the Numerical Ability Section are mentioned below

Numerical Ability

Simplification and Approximation

Number Series

Quadratic Equations

Profit & Loss


Ratio & Proportion

Data Interpretation

Time & Work

Time, Speed, and Distance


IBPS Clerk Exam Preparation for the English Language

English Language section is one of the most scoring sections in the exam. This section mainly assesses the basic understanding of grammar rules and vocabulary of the candidates. Some of the important points stated below that the candidates must consider while preparing for the English Language section.

  • Learn and revise the grammatical rules on a daily basis

  • Make a habit of reading the newspaper and maintain short notes of important topics. This will not help the candidates in getting familiar with new words, but also be helpful in the preparation of the current affairs section for the mains exam.

  • Attempt mock test of English Language sections daily

Some of the important topics covered in the English Language Section are mentioned below.

English Language Section

Reading Comprehension

Spotting Errors

Fill in Gaps

Cloze Test

Basic Grammar


IBPS Clerk Exam Preparation for the Reasoning Ability

Reasoning Ability can be one of the highest-scoring sections if the candidates have understood the tricks and logic to solve the puzzles. This section needs a lot of practice. The more you practice the important topics, the better your speed and accuracy will be while attempting the actual exam. Below are a few tips to prepare for the Reasoning Ability section.

  • Puzzles, Seating Arrangements, and Syllogism are some of the important topics that carry a good weightage of marks. The Question paper consists of these topics every year. Therefore, candidates are advised to practice more and more and improve this speed with accuracy in solving the questions related to these topics.

  • Learn the basic concepts of each and every topic included in the syllabus

  • Solve questions from the previous year’s question paper to get an idea of what types of questions are asked every year.

  • Practice as many mock tests and quizzes as you can to build a strong grip on the reasoning section.

Reasoning Ability

Seating Arrangements



Blood Relations


Direction Sense


Distance & Directions

Linear & Circular Seating Arrangements

Candidates applying for the IBPS Clerk Prelims Exam can formulate a good preparation strategy with the help of the IBPS Clerk Syllabus and Exam Pattern in order to perform well in the exam.

I hope you like this, so kindly comment below the post and do share your response. Thanks for reading :)

Thursday, August 20, 2020

Top 10 Cities of Swachh survekshan 2020

On 20 August Indian Govt announced top cities of Swachh Survekshan .
I am mentioning just 10 because that's important knowledge to know

1. Indore
3. Navi Mumbai

Top 10 of year 2019 were:

5.New Delhi (NDMC Part)
7.Navi Mumbai

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

Super 30 Anand Kumar's Important Advice

Recently Anand Kumar, Famous super 30 Founder shared some wonderful lines on his facebook page which are worth Sharing:

"सफलता कितनी भी बड़ी हो, शुरुआत हमेशा छोटी ही होती है| आजकल इस कोविड-19 के दौर में वेबिनार के जरिए स्टूडेंट्स से बात-चीत करने का खूब मौका मिल रहा है। मैं उनके हर तरह के सवालों का जवाब देने का प्रयास भी करता हूं। एक बड़ा कॉमन सवाल पूछा जाता है कि सर मैं आपकी बातें सुनकर पूरी ताकत के साथ पढ़ाई में जुट जाता हूं। रुटीन बनाता हूं। सुबह-सुबह उठता भी हूं।

पढ़ना शुरू भी करता हूं, लेकिन कुछ ही दिनों में उत्साह ठंडा हो जाता है और फिर कुछ आगे करने का मन भी नहीं करता है। एक और अहम सवाल अक्सर मेरे सामने आता है कि समय मेरे पास या फिर सफल लोगों के पास 24 घंटे ही होता हैं, लेकिन सफल लोग उस 24 घंटे में क्या कुछ और कैसे करते हैं कि सफल हो जाते हैं और मैं अब तक कुछ नहीं कर पाया हूं। दोनों सवालों का जवाब एक ही जैसा है। दरअसल सफल लोगों को देखकर हम उनकी सफलता और उपलब्धियों से प्रवाभित हो जाते हैं। और यह भी सच है कि सफल इंसान आॅर्गेनाइज्ड तरीके से खूब मेहनत करता है। फिर क्या, हम भी उतनी बड़ी सफलता के लिए उसी तरह से उतने ही घंटे प्रयास शुरू कर देते हैं। और बहुत ही जल्दी परिणाम खोजते हैं। ऐसे लोगों की कमी नहीं है कि अभी हाथ में किताबें पकड़ी नहीं कि यूपीएससी में टॉप करने का सपना देखने लगे। हम यूपीएससी टॉपर का इंटरव्यू देखते हैं।

टॉपर अगर इंटरव्यू में बताता है कि वह प्रतिदिन 14 घंटे पढ़ाई करता था, तब उसकी देखा-देखी हम भी पहले ही दिन से 14 घंटे पढ़ाई करने की कोशिश करने लगते हैं। अगर हम कसरत करके स्वास्थ्य चाहते हैं, तब बहुत ही जल्दी फिल्मी हीरो जैसे शरीर की कल्पना करने लगते हैं। यहीं हम गलती कर बैठते हैं। फिर हम निराशा के शिकार हो जाते हैं। राह से भटक भी जाते हैं। अंतत: प्रयास भी छोड़ देते हैं। हम कभी नहीं सोचते हैं कि आज हम जिस सफलता को विशाल वृक्ष के रूप में देख रहें हैं कभी न कभी यह भी एक छोटा सा बीज रहा होगा। फिर बीज अंकुरित हुआ होगा।

एक नन्हा सा पौधा बना होगा। और फिर वही छोटा सा पौधा धीरे-धीरे विशालकाय वृक्ष का रूप धारण करता है। मेरे कहने का मतलब है कि सफलता चाहे कितनी भी बड़ी क्यों न हो, शुरुआत हमेशा बहुत ही छोटे से ही होती है। मैं अपने अनुभव के आधार पर भी आपको बता सकता हूं कि बड़ी से बड़ी सफलता के लिए भी शुरुआत छोटी होनी चाहिए। हां, इतना जरूर है कि आप ध्यान रखें कि आपका प्रयास कभी नहीं छूटे। निरंतर चलते रहे। और अगर आपने शुरुआत बहुत ही छोटी की है, तब आप थकेगें नहीं। रुकेंगें भी नहीं। आप सच में कुछ बड़ा करना चाहते हैं तब शुरुआत छोटी करें। अगर आपका दिल पढ़ाई में जरा भी नहीं लगता है और आप पढ़कर कुछ अच्छा करना चाहते हों, तब एक ऐसा रुटीन बनाएं जिसमे पहले कुछ दिनों तक आपको सिर्फ एक ही घंटा पढ़ना पड़े। लेकिन हां, उस एक घंटे को पूरी शांति से, पूरे मन से पढ़ाई में लगाएं। और जो भी विषय पढ़ना चाहते हों उस विषय की सबसे सरल पुस्तक से ही शुरुआत करें। एक बात और, जब तक विषय को पूरी तरह से समझ नहीं जाएं, आगे किसी भी हालत में नहीं बढ़ें।

धीरे-धीरे आप अभ्यास का समय अपनी सुविधा और क्षमता के अनुसार बढाएं। संभव है कि आपको प्रोग्रेस बहुत ही धीमी महसूस हो। आपको लगे कि इस रफ्तार से चलने पर आप मंजिल तक नहीं पहुंचेंगें। लेकिन, ऐसा नहीं है। आप जरूर सफल होगें। याद रहे कि इस दरम्यान बहुत ही धैर्य की जरूरत होती है। सकारात्मक भी बने रहना जरूरी होता है। बचपन में ही हम लोगों ने कछुए और खरगोश की कहानी पढ़ी थी। आज भी वह प्रासंगिक है। सबसे जरूरी यह है कि प्रयास बहुत ही छोटा हो कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ता परंतु लगातार प्रयास करते रहना चाहिए।

I hope you like this, so kindly comment below the post and do share your response. Thanks for reading :)

Saturday, November 3, 2018

How to reach Nunkun Assessment centre C-129 Naraina Industrial Area

Hello Guys

Today I will teach you the path of Exam Centre Nunkun Assessment Centre C-129 near Naraina Industrial Area, Delhi-110028 via Metro.
So Firstly, here is the pic of Exam Centre for your convenience.
Nunkun Assessment Centre, Naraina
And Now time to tell the route

  1. Nunkun Assessment Centre is near the Shadipur Metro Station which is on the blue line (Noida-dwarka route), as i picked metro from Mayur Vihar Phase-1, so i am showing you the map of route so that you can take some idea from it and it will help you definitely
  2. You have to get out from Metro Gate No-6.
  3. Just go straight after coming out from gate no-6 and there will 4 way road, and you can see E-Rickshaw standing there which will take you to the centre in Rs 10/-
  4. They will leave you on main road ,you just have to cross the road and reach the exam Centre.
Best Of Luck !!!!

I hope you like this, so kindly comment below the post and do share your response. Thanks for reading :)

Saturday, October 21, 2017

Important Days to Remember - October

1st October- International Day of Older Persons
The theme of the International Day of Older Persons 2017 is “Stepping into the Future: Tapping the Talents, Contributions and Participation of Older Persons in Society.” This day is about enabling and expanding the contributions of older people in their families, communities and societies at large. It focuses on the pathways that support full and effective participation in old age, in accordance with old persons’ basic rights, needs and preferences.
2nd October- Gandhi Jayanti, International Day of Non-Violence, World Habitat Day (First Monday of October)
The International Day of Non-Violence is marked on 2 October, the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, leader of the Indian independence movement and pioneer of the philosophy and strategy of non-violence.
The United Nations has designated the first Monday of October of every year as World Habitat Day. The theme for World Habitat Day 2 October 2017 was Housing Policies: Affordable Homes. The purpose of World Habitat Day is to reflect on the state of our towns and cities, and on the basic right of all to adequate shelter
4th-10th October- World Space Week
2017 Theme: “Exploring New Worlds in Space”. World Space Week is the largest annual space event in the world. It helps build up the workforce of tomorrow by inspiring students, demonstrates visible public support for the space programme, educates the public about space activities, and fosters international cooperation in space outreach and education.
5th October- World Teachers Day
World Teachers’ Day 2017 was celebrated under the theme “Teaching in Freedom, Empowering Teachers”, echoing the 2015 theme that followed the adoption of the new Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) in September 2015, when teacher empowerment was reaffirmed as a top priority in all education and development strategies. Held annually on 5 October since 1994, World Teachers’ Day commemorates the anniversary of the signing of the 1966 UNESCO/ILO Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers.
8th October- 85th Indian Air Force Day
India started to celebrate Air Force day on 8th of October in the year 1932 as an auxiliary air force of Indian Empire.
9th October- World Post Day
World Post Day is celebrated each year on 9 October, the anniversary of the establishment of the Universal Postal Union in 1874 in the Swiss Capital, Bern. It was declared World Post Day by the UPU Congress held in Tokyo, Japan in 1969. Since then, countries around the world participate annually in the celebrations.
10th October- World Mental Health Day
Mental health in the workplace is the theme of World Mental Health Day 2017. World Mental Health Day is observed on 10 October every year, with the overall objective of raising awareness of mental health issues and mobilizing efforts in support of better mental health. 
11th October- International Day of the Girl Child
Since 2012, 11 October has been marked as the International Day of the Girl. The day aims to highlight and address the needs and challenges girls face, while promoting girls' empowerment and the fulfillment of their human rights. This year, International Day of the Girl (11 October) will focus on the theme, "EmPOWER girls: Before, during and after conflict".
13th October- International Day for Disaster Reduction
International Day for Disaster Reduction began in 1989, after a call by the United Nations General Assembly for a day to promote a global culture of risk-awareness and disaster reduction. Held every 13 October, the day celebrates how people and communities around the world are reducing their exposure to disasters and raising awareness about the importance of reining in the risks that they face. The 2017 edition continues under the "Sendai Seven" campaign, centred on the seven targets of the Sendai Framework. This year's focus is Target B: Reducing the number of affected people by disasters by 2030.
14th October- International Standards Day
Each year on 14 October, the members of the IEC, ISO and ITU celebrate World Standards Day, which is a means of paying tribute to the collaborative efforts of the thousands of experts worldwide who develop the voluntary technical agreements that are published as international standards.
15th October- International Day of Rural Women
This day recognizes the role of rural women, including indigenous women, in agricultural and rural development, particularly in developing countries.
16th October- World Food Day
FAO celebrates World Food Day each year on 16 October to commemorate the founding of the Organization in 1945.  Events are organized in over 150 countries across the world, making it one of the most celebrated days of the UN calendar. This year's theme is Change the future of migration. Invest in food security and rural development.
17th October- International Day for the Eradication of Poverty
2017 theme — Answering the Call of October 17 to end poverty: A path toward peaceful and inclusive societies. The theme for this year’s commemoration reminds us of the importance of the values of dignity, solidarity and voice underscored in the Call to Action to fight to end poverty everywhere. 
20th October- World Osteoporosis Day
World Osteoporosis Day (WOD), marked on October 20 each year, is a year-long campaign dedicated to raising global awareness of the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and related bone diseases. This year's theme is, "Love your bones - Protect your future".
21st October- Police Commemoration Day
Police Commemoration Day is observed on October 21 every year to mark the martyrdom of Policemen killed in Ladakh in 1959 and to pay tribute to all other Police personnel killed on duty during the year. 
24th October- United Nations Day, World Polio Day, 
2017 Theme: Potential in Diversity. UN Day marks the anniversary of the entry into force in 1945 of the UN Charter. With the ratification of this founding document by the majority of its signatories, including the five permanent members of the Security Council, the United Nations officially came into being.
World Polio Day was established by Rotary International over a decade ago to commemorate the birth of Jonas Salk, who led the first team to develop a vaccine against poliomyelitis. Polio is a crippling and potentially fatal infectious disease. There is no cure, but there are safe and effective vaccines.
27th October- World Day for Audiovisual Heritage
Audiovisual documents, such as films, radio and television programmes, are our common heritage and contain the primary records of the history of the 20th and 21st centuries. Unfortunately, that heritage is now endangered, because sound recordings and moving images can be deliberately destroyed or irretrievably lost as a result of neglect, decay and technological obsolescence. Through initiatives such as the World Day for Audiovisual Heritage and the Memory of the World Programme, the work of preservation professionals is encouraged, in order to manage the range of technical, political, social, financial and other factors that threaten the safeguarding of our audiovisual heritage.
31st October- Rashtriya Ekta Diwas(National Unity Day)
The Government of India observes 31st October all over the country as a day of special ocassion, to foster and reinforce our dedication to preserve and strengthen unity, integrity and security of our nation by celebrating it as Rashtriya Ekta Diwas (National Unity Day) to commemorate the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Important Days to Remember - September

Important Days are a must to remember for Banking, Insurance and SSC exams. These important days are asked in the general awareness section of almost all competitive examination and their knowledge can be also very useful for preparing for interviews. Here we provide you with a list of all Important Days that you must Remember of this month-September. This will come handy for a smooth preparation for upcoming IBPS RRB Officer Scale-I, Office Assistant, SSC MTS, Intelligence Beurue and IBPS 2017 Examination.
5th September- Teacher's Day
India has commemorated the birth anniversary of the great Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan since 1962 to honor such wonderful teachers across the country. The first Teachers’ Day was celebrated in India in 1962. This is the year when Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan began serving as the second president of India.
8th September- International Literacy Day
This year, International Literacy Day (8 September) will be celebrated across the world under the theme of ‘Literacy in a digital world’. On 8 September 2017 a global event will be organized at UNESCO’s Headquarters in Paris, with the overall aim to look at what kind of literacy skills people need to navigate increasingly digitally-mediated societies and to explore effective literacy policies and programmes that can leverage the opportunities that the digital world provides.
15th September- Engineer's Day
Engineer's Day is observed in India on September 15 in honour of Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya who was born on the day in 1860. He was the chief designer of the flood protection system designed and built for the city of Hyderabad, as well as the chief engineer responsible for the construction of the Krishna Raja Sagara dam in Mysore which created the largest reservoir in Asia at that time.
16th September- World Ozone Day
This year marks the 30th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol. As part of the anniversary celebrations, the Ozone Secretariat will launch a communication campaign ahead of World Ozone Day to be marked on 16 September 2017. The ozone layer, a fragile shield of gas, protects the Earth from the harmful portion of the rays of the sun, thus helping preserve life on the planet.
21st September- International Day of Peace; World Alzheimer's Day
Each year the International Day of Peace is observed around the world on 21 September. The General Assembly has declared this as a day devoted to strengthening the ideals of peace, both within and among all nations and peoples. The theme for 2017 is “Together for Peace: Respect, Safety and Dignity for All.”
World Alzheimer’s Day, September 21st of each year, is a day on which Alzheimer’s organizations around the world concentrate their efforts on raising awareness about Alzheimer’s and dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, a group of disorders that impairs mental functioning.
18th - 24th September- International Week of the Deaf
International Week of the Deaf is celebrated by the World Federation of the Deaf (WFD) and its national associations and their affiliates globally during the last full week of September (Monday through Sunday), culminating with International Day of the Deaf on the last Sunday of the week.
27th September- World Tourism Day
World Tourism Day 2017 presents a unique opportunity to raise awareness on the contribution of sustainable tourism to development among public and private sector decision-makers and the international community, while mobilizing all stakeholders to work together in making tourism a catalyst for positive change. As the United Nations General Assembly affirmed when announcing the adoption of 2017 as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development, tourism can contribute to all the three dimensions of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental – and each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. 
28th September- World Rabies Day
28 September also marks the anniversary of Louis Pasteur's death, the French chemist and microbiologist, who developed the first rabies vaccine. It is celebrated annually to raise awareness about rabies prevention and to highlight progress in defeating this horrifying disease

Saturday, June 24, 2017

GA Study Notes On Cement Manufacturing

Manufacturing of Cement

Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments.The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.It was discovered by an English Mason, Joseph Aspdin in 1824. He called it Portland cement because he thought that it resembled the limestone found in Portland.

Approximate Composition of Portland cement
Calcium oxide (CaO) 60-70%
Silica (SiO2) 20-25%

Alumina (Al2O3) 5-10%

Ferric oxide (Fe2O3 )         2-3%

Raw materials are:

Limestone -  (provides lime), Clay -  (provides alumina and silica), Gypsum - (reduces the setting time of cement).

For a good quality cement, the ratio of silica (SiO) to alumina Al2O3) should be between 2.5 and 4 and the ratio of lime (CaO) to the total of the oxides of silicon (SiO2) aluminium (Al2O3) and iron (Fe2O3) should be as close as possible to 2.

The raw materials for the manufacture of cement are limestone and clay. When clay and lime are strongly heated together they fuse and react to form ‘cement clinker’. This clinker is mixed with 2-3% by weight of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) to form cement.Thus important ingredients present in Portland cement are dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) 26%, tricalciumsilicate (Ca3SiO5) 51% and tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al2O6)11%.Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand, and water. It is used for plastering walls and binding bricks and stones.Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, gravel or small pieces of stone and water. It is used for the construction of floors.RCC - The structure having iron rods embedded in wet concrete, is known as reinforced concrete. 

Setting of Cement: When mixed with water, the setting of cement takes place to give a hard mass. This is due to the hydration of the molecules of the constituents and their rearrangement. The purpose of adding gypsum is only to slow down the process of setting of the cement so that it gets sufficiently
hardened.It is an exothermic process, therefore cement structures have to be cooled up to 7 days by sprinkling water.

Uses: Cement has become a commodity of national necessity for any country next to iron and steel. It is used in concrete and reinforced concrete, in plastering and in the construction of bridges, dams, and buildings.

Computer Study Notes: History and Generation of Computers

History and Generations is an important chapter of Computer Awareness for Bank Exams. Computer awareness is a section in upcoming NICL AO Mains and it is also a section in the mains examination of IBPS RRB, IBPS PO and IBPS Clerk exams. Last year many questions in IBPS Examination were from this topic History and Generations, so aspirants must also prepare this along with other topics. You can find more study notes on computer terms asked in recent bank exams and start your preparation.

1. In 1822, Charles Babbage conceptualized and began developing the Difference Engine, considered to be the first automatic computing machine.

2. Then after almost a decade, Charles Babbage proposed the first general mechanical computer, the Analytical Engine. The Analytical Engine contained an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), basic flow control, and integrated memory concept and is the first general-purpose computer.

3. In 1946, ENIAC- Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer was the first electronic general-purpose computer. It was the first large-scale computer to run at electronic speed without being slowed by any mechanical parts. And it was invented by J.Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly. 

4. Douglas Engelbart invented the first computer mouse.

5. First computer with RAM - MIT introduces the Whirlwind machine, a revolutionary computer that was the first digital computer with magnetic core RAM and real-time graphics.

6. The first minicomputer - In 1960 Digital Equipment Corporation released its first of many PDP computers the PDP-1.

7. The first laptop - First Laptop was introduced in 1981 by Adom Osborne and the company “EPSON” manufactured first Laptop.

The following table categorises generations of computers and other important factors associated with the generations. 

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Important Ancient Books on Science and Medicine For SSC CGL EXAM

ATHARVAVEDA (1000 BCE) Treatise on health, longevity, and curative treatment. Hygiene, dietetics, and beneficial effects of milk have also been elaborately dealt with.

BHELA SAMHITA (800 BCE) A codification of medicine scattered in the Vedas.  Atreya is known as the writer of Bhela Samhita

AGNIVESA SAMHITA (700 BCE) A codification of medicine by Agnivesa (a disciple of Atreya - founder of Ayurveda).  

KASHYAP SAMHITA (600 BCE) Deals with paediatrics.

CHIVARAVASTU (500 BCE) Mentions the court physician of Bimbisara (King of Magadha) as a marvelous physician and surgeon. Describes difficult surgical operations e.g. opening of the brain and eye surgery. 

HIPPOCRATIC OATH (460 TO 370 BCE) Hippocrates is considered to be the father of western medicine. The Oath is thought to have been written by the Greek physician Hippocrates. In some medical colleges around the world this oath is taken by graduating doctors. 

HUANGDI NEICHING (450 BCE) The first book on medicine in China. 

CHARAKA SAMHITA (100 CE) A classical exposition of Indian medicine. It deals with almost all branches of medicine. 

CELSUS (100 TO 200 CE) A treatise on medicine and surgery from Alexandria and Rome.

SUSRUTA SAMHITA (200 TO 300 CE) A treatise on Ayurveda like the Charaka Samhita. Susruta is described as a disciple of Dhanwantari. 

VAGHATA (500 TO 600 CE) A concise and scientific exposition of Ayurveda in verse from. It is distinguished by its knowledge of chemical reactions and laboratory processes etc.

VEDUKUNTA (600 TO 750 CE) A tratise on the rasa chikitsa system of ancient medicine, which considers mercury as the king of all medicines. It explains various preparations of mercury and other metals, alloys, metallic compounds, salts, and sulphur. 

MADHAVACHARAYA (700 TO 800 CE) A  compilation from earlier works of Agnivesa, Charaka, Susruta, and Vaghata and is famous all over India as the best treatise on Ayurveda and diagnosis of disease. 

Important Newspapers for Governments Exam

1. Al-Ahram - Egypt 

2. Izvestia - Russia 

3. The Dawn - Pakistan 

4. Daily News - USA

5. Daily Telegraph - UK

6. Aftonbladet - Sweden 

7. The Daily Mirror - UK

8. The Times - UK

9. The Guardian - UK

10. New Statesman - UK

11. New York Times - USA

12. Pakistan Times - Pakistan 

13. Pravda - Russia 

14. People’s Daily - China 

15. Merdeka - Indonesia 

16. Le Monde - France 

17. Wall Street Journal - USA

18. Clarin - Argentina 

19. The Age - Australia 

20. Gulf Daily News - Bahrain 

21. Correio Braziliense - Brazil 

22. Chronical-Herald - Canada 

23. China Daily - China 

24. Middle East times - Egypt 

25. Courier International - Germany 

26. The Jakarta Post - Indonesia 

27. Tehran Times - Iran 

28. Globes - Israel 

29. La Repubblica - Italy 

30. Asahi Shimbun - Japan 

31. El Universal - Mexico 

32. Gazeta Wyborcza - Poland 

33. O’Independente - Portugal 

34. Gulf Times - Qatar 

35. Gazeta - Russia 

36. Politika - Serbia 

37. El Mundo - Spain 

38. Aksam - Turkey  

Sunday, February 26, 2017

Important Trophies and Associated Games (Part-II) For All Competitive Exam

Important Trophies and Associated Games 

Presidents Cup: Football

Prince of Wales Cup: Golf (England)

Raiffeisen Grand Prix Title: Tennis

RCA Championship Title: Tennis

Rogers Cup: Tennis

Ryder Cup: Golf (England)

Schneider Cup: Seaplane Race (England)

Swaythling Cup: World Table Tennis (men)

Thailand Open: Tennis

Thomas Cup: World Badminton (men)  

Tunku Abdul Rahman Cup: Asian Badminton

U Thant Cup: Lawn Tennis

Uber Cup: World Badminton (women)

UEFA Cup: Football

US Open: Tennis (Grand Slam Tennis)

Virginia Long Corn Trophy: Boxing

Virginia Slam Championship: Tennis

Walker Cup: Golf (England)

WBA Title: Boxing

WBC crown: Boxing

Westchester Cup: Polo (England)  

Whiteman Cup: Tennis

Wightman Cup: Tennis (women: USA and England)

William Cup: Basketball

William Todd Memorial Trophy: Basketball

Wimbledon Trophy: Tennis

Wimbledon, French Open: Tennis (Grand Slam Tennis)

World Cup Championship: Boxing

World Heavyweight Championship: Boxing

WTA Championship: Tennis

WTA-ING Vysya Open: Tennis 

Important Trophies and Associated Games (Part-I) For All Competitive Exam

Important Trophies and Associated Games 

America’s cup: Yacht racing

Ashes series: Cricket (Australia-England)

Asia Cup: Cricket  (Asian countries)   

ATP Championship: Tennis

Australia Open: Tennis

Azar Cup: Polo

Azlan Shah Cup: Hockey  

Benson and Hedges Trophy: Cricket

Canadian Open: Tennis

Champions Trophy: Hockey

Champions League T-20: Cricket

ICC Champions Trophy: Cricket

Cincinnati Masters: Tennis  

Colombo Cup: Football (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Burma now Myanmar)

Corbillion Cup: World Table Tennis (women)

Davis Cup: Tennis

Derby: Horse Racing

Dubai Open: Tennis

Euro Cup or European Championship: Football

Evert Cup: Tennis

F.A. Cup: Football

Federation Cup: Tennis

FIFA Cup of World Cup: Football

French Open: Tennis

German Open: Tennis

Grand National: Horse Racing (Chase Race, England)

Hall of Fame Tennis Championship: Tennis

Heineken Open ATP Tour Event: Tennis

Hol Rar Trophy: Bridge

Hopman Cup: Tennis

Indian Premier League: Cricket

India Gandhi International Gold Cup: Hockey

Italian Open: Tennis

Jules Rimet Trophy: World Football (soccer)

King’s Cup: Air Races (England)

Korea Cup: Tennis

Mercedes-Benz Cup: Tennis

Merdeka: Football (Asian Cup)

Nasdaq-100 open: Tennis

Natwest Trophy: Cricket

Nordic Light Open: Tennis 

Study notes on "VITAMINS" (Part-II) for SSC CGL Pre 2017

VITAMIN A (Retinol)


Dairy products, cod liver oil,liver, dark green and yellow vegetables and fruits


Maintains eye healthPromotes growth and development, maintains healthy bones and teethEnhances the protection and regeneration of cells and mucous membraneMaintains healthy respiratory and intestinal tractsMaintain healthy hair, nails and skin


Night blindness, dry eyesDry skinStomach discomfortPoor growthWeak bones and teeth


Dry, scaly, peeling, and itchy skin, rashHair lossPoor appetite, fatigueVomiting, stomach discomfortLiver injuryHeadache, bone painNervousness, irritability


VITAMIN B1 (Thymine)


sprouts, yeast



VITAMIN B2 (Ryboflabin)


sprout, present in cow's milk(yellowish)


Cheilosis, ulceration

VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine)


It is responsible for rememeber dreams.


Anaemia Nervousness, insomnia, depression Muscle cramps

VITAMIN C (Ascorbic acid)


Citrus fruits(orange,grapefruit,lemon),strawberry,black current,kiwi fruit, tomato, green leafy vegetables, green pepper


Helps synthesize collagen; promotes the growth and repair of cells, gum, teeth, blood vessels and bonesHelps healing after operation and injuryHelps calcium and iron absorptionEnhances immunity


ScurvyGuminflammation and bleeding, fall of teethSusceptibility to skin bleeding, burst of capillary vesselsWeakness, fatigueBone pain, swollen and aching joints


Abdominal painDiarrheaKidney stone

In smokers and drinkers vitamin C is absent

Study notes on "VITAMINS" (Part-I) SSC CGL Pre 2017

Dear Students, SSC CGL 2017 Pre exam in scheduled in the month of June/July 2017. At SA, We are providing to you the NOTES ON GENERAL SCIENCE, these notes will help you build your basic understanding of all topics and you'll be able to score maximum marks in SSC CGL Pre exam. Study, Revise and Learn all these notes by heart. 

VITAMIN K (Phylloquinone)


Green leafy vegetables, soya beans. The human body can also produce Vitamin K through germs in the colon(part of small intestine).


  • Helps blood clotting, prevent over bleeding
  • Maintains health of the liver


Uncontrol bleeding from wounds due to clotting difficulty


Can lead to liver damage

VITAMIN E (Tocopherol)=Beauty Vitamin

It is also known as Antisterility Vitamin.


Green leafy vegetables, whole-wheat cereals, nuts, sprouts, egg  yolk


  • Maintains normal conditions of cells, and healthy skin and tissues
  • Protects red blood cells
  • Antioxidation
  • Enhance immunity


New born infants: haemolytic anaemia

Adults: weakness


  • Low thyroxine level
  • Fertility Desease
  • Headache, dizziness, fatigue
  • Stomach discomfort, poor appetite

VITAMIN D (Calciferol)=(Sunhine Vitamin)


Egg yolk, liver, cod liver oil, fish. Our skins also produces Vitamin D when exposed to sunlight


  • Helps body absorb and utilize calcium and phosphorus, so as to maintain bones, teeth and brain healthy
  • Maintains normal calcium level in blood


  • Children: rickets
  • Adults: Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis


  • Calcified cartilage
  • High calcium level in the blood causes abnormal heart beat and damage to organs such as kidneys
  • Vomiting, diarrhea
  • Sore eyes
  • Itchy skin

Thursday, February 9, 2017

Important government schemes For All Governments Exam


Objective-PMAY & PMAY (Gramin) are launched to achieve Housing for All by 2022 Mission

Important Points
1. Construct two crore houses across the nation.
2. Central grant of Rs. one lakhs per house, on an average, will be available under the slum rehabilitation programme.

3. Program will be implemented into three phase April 2015 - March 2017, April 2017 - March 2019 and April 2019 - March 2022


Objective of this scheme is to provide retirement income to all the citizens

Important points
1. ELIGIBILITY-All citizens of India between the age of 18 and 60 years can join this plan.
2. NPS is administered by the PFRDA(Pension Fund Regulatory And Development Authority)
3. NPS is divided into  tier-I NPS account, Tier-ii NPS account, NPS - Swavalamban scheme
Tier I Account - Under this account, withdrawals are not allowed. It is solely meant for savings after the subscriber’s retirement.

Tier II Account - Under this account, a subscriber is free to make as many withdrawals as he or she likes at any time, similar to a regular savings account.

Swavalamban Account - In this account the Indian government contributes a sum of Rs 1,000 every year over the initial four years. The purpose of this account is to provide encouragement for workers of poor economic standing.

4. All existing members of the government's 'Swavalamban yojana ' will automatically be migrated to the Atal pension yojana. It will now replace the Swavalamban scheme

5. It provides a PRAN(permanent retirement account number)and it remains with the subscriber throughout his lifetime.

6. Flexible- NPS offers a range of investment options and choice of pension fund manager (pfms)


Full form of mudra -Mudra - Micro Units Development & Refinance Agency
Main aim of this scheme is To make youth job creators and not job seekers
This scheme help in  “fund the unfunded” by bringing such enterprises to the formal financial system and extending affordable credit to them

Important point
1. It enables a small borrower to borrow loan for non-farm income generating activities.
2. 3 types of loans to be allotted by MUDRA
(i) Shishu-covering loans up to 50,000/-
(ii) Kishor-covering loans above 50,000/- and up to 5 lakhs
(iii) Tarun-covering loans above 5 lakhs and up to 10 lakhs
3.There is no subsidy for the loan given under PMMY.


It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), launched in 2013 aims at providing strategic funding to eligible state higher educational institutions and funding in  the ratio of 60:40 for general category States, 90:10 for special category states and 100% for union territories

Its main objective is To improve access, equity and quality in higher education through planned development of higher education at the state level and Improve the overall quality of state institutions

Important Point
RUSA would create new universities through upgradation of existing autonomous colleges and conversion of colleges in a cluster. It would create new model degree colleges, new professional colleges and provide infrastructural support to universities and colleges.

2. It is proposed to improve the gross enrolment ratio from 19% at present to 30% by 2020.


This scheme was launched on 11th October, 2014 - Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan Ji’s birth anniversary – at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi. this scheme is Inspired by the principles and values of Mahatma Gandhi

The Main aim of this scheme is to develop three Adarsh grams (model villages) by march 2019, by each MP, of which one would be achieved by 2016. after that five such Adarsh grams (one per year) will be selected and developed by 2024.

Important Point
 Members of parliament (MPs) are the pivots this scheme will run on. Gram Panchayat would be the basic unit for development. It will have a population of 3000-5000 in plain areas and 1000-3000 in hilly, tribal and difficult areas.

2.There are no new funds and fund can be raised from existing scheme


The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (NREGA) is a social security scheme that aims at providing employment and livelihood to rural labourers in the country.
It was later renamed the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA).

The objective of this scheme is to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

Important Point
Strong social safety net for the vulnerable groups

2.  If a person does not get employment within 15 days of registration, he/she becomes eligible for an unemployment allowance.

3.  Sustainable development of an agricultural economy-employment on works that address drought, deforestation and soil erosion, water and soil conservation, afforestation and land development works

4.  At least one-third beneficiaries shall be women

Saturday, February 4, 2017

Public Finance (Part-II)


A. Tax revenue – It consists of the proceeds of taxes & other duties levied by the government. The various taxes that are imposed by a government can be categorised into two groups.

1. Direct Taxes

2. Indirect Taxes

1. Direct taxes – Direct Taxes are those taxes which are paid by the same person on whom they have been imposed. Tax burden cannot be shifted on to others.

Example- Income Tax, wealth tax.

2. Indirect taxes – Those taxes whose burden (partial or whole) can be shifted.

Example- Excise duty.

Note- the Basis of classifying taxes into direct tax & Indirect tax is whether the burden of the tax is shiftable to others or not.

B. Non-Tax revenue – It includes receipts from sources other than taxes. The main sources of non-tax revenues are -Interest, Profits & dividends, Fees & fines, Special assessment, Gifts & grants, Escheats

Capital receipts- Capital receipts are defined as any receipt of the government which either creates a liability or leads to the reduction in assets. Capital receipts include the following 3 items.

Recovery of loans


Small savings

Budget expenditure – It refers to the estimated expenditure of the government under various heads. In India, it is classified into two categories.

1. Revenue expenditure

2. Capital expenditure

Revenue Expenditure – It refers to all those expenditures of the government which

do not result in a creation of physical or financial assets.

do not cause any reduction in liability of the government.

It relates to those expenses incurred for the normal functioning of the Government departments & provision of various services, interest payments on debt incurred by government & grants given to state government & other parties.

Capital expenditure – An expenditure which either creates an Asset or reduces liability is called capital expenditure. It consists mainly of expenditure on Acquisition of Assets like land, buildings, machinery, equipment, investments in shares, etc. & loans and advances granted by the central government to state & union territory government, government companies, corporation & other parties.

Other classifications of Public Expenditure:- 

1. Plan Expenditure and Non-plan expenditure:-Public expenditure is classified as plan expenditure and non-plan expenditure. 

Plan expenditure- Plan expenditure refers to that expenditure which is provided in the budget to be incurred on the programmes. For example, expenditure on agriculture, power, communication, industry, transport, general economic and social services etc.

Non-plan expenditure- It refers to the government expenditure other than the expenditure related to the plan of the government. Such an expenditure is a must for every Country having planning or no planning e.g. expenditure on police, judiciary, military, expenditure on normal running of government departments, expenditure on relief measures for earthquake/flood victims. 

2. Developmental Expenditure and Non-Developmental Expenditure:- Public expenditure is also classified as development expenditure and non-development expenditure. 

Development expenditure- It refers to expenditure on activities which are directly related to the economic and social development of the country. This includes expenditure on education, agricultural and industrial development, rural development, social welfare, scientific research etc. Such expenditure it not a part of the essential functioning of the government. It directly contributes to the development of the economy. It adds to the flow of goods and services. 

Non-development expenditure- It refers to expenditure incurred on essential general services of the Government such expenditure is essential from the administrative point of view. Expenditure on police. Judiciary, defence, general administration, interest, payments tax collection, subsidies on food etc. fall under this category.


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