Showing posts with label ssc. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ssc. Show all posts

Monday, August 14, 2017

Important Folk Dances of All States

SSC CGL 2017 Tier-I exam is going on. These notes are based on the Folk Dances of all Indian States and questions are being asked on this topic in the SSC CGL Tier-1 Exam. Candidates having CGL Exam in the upcoming shifts can go through these questions and can expect these questions to be asked in upcoming shifts as well.

Saturday, June 24, 2017

GA Study Notes On Cement Manufacturing

Manufacturing of Cement

Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments.The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.It was discovered by an English Mason, Joseph Aspdin in 1824. He called it Portland cement because he thought that it resembled the limestone found in Portland.

Approximate Composition of Portland cement
Calcium oxide (CaO) 60-70%
Silica (SiO2) 20-25%

Alumina (Al2O3) 5-10%

Ferric oxide (Fe2O3 )         2-3%

Raw materials are:

Limestone -  (provides lime), Clay -  (provides alumina and silica), Gypsum - (reduces the setting time of cement).

For a good quality cement, the ratio of silica (SiO) to alumina Al2O3) should be between 2.5 and 4 and the ratio of lime (CaO) to the total of the oxides of silicon (SiO2) aluminium (Al2O3) and iron (Fe2O3) should be as close as possible to 2.

The raw materials for the manufacture of cement are limestone and clay. When clay and lime are strongly heated together they fuse and react to form ‘cement clinker’. This clinker is mixed with 2-3% by weight of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) to form cement.Thus important ingredients present in Portland cement are dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) 26%, tricalciumsilicate (Ca3SiO5) 51% and tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al2O6)11%.Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand, and water. It is used for plastering walls and binding bricks and stones.Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, gravel or small pieces of stone and water. It is used for the construction of floors.RCC - The structure having iron rods embedded in wet concrete, is known as reinforced concrete. 

Setting of Cement: When mixed with water, the setting of cement takes place to give a hard mass. This is due to the hydration of the molecules of the constituents and their rearrangement. The purpose of adding gypsum is only to slow down the process of setting of the cement so that it gets sufficiently
hardened.It is an exothermic process, therefore cement structures have to be cooled up to 7 days by sprinkling water.

Uses: Cement has become a commodity of national necessity for any country next to iron and steel. It is used in concrete and reinforced concrete, in plastering and in the construction of bridges, dams, and buildings.

Tuesday, June 13, 2017


The Earth is surrounded by a layer of gas called the atmosphere.The atmosphere extends up to a height of about 1,600 kilometres. 

The atmosphere is composed of:
Nitrogen (78.09%),
Oxygen (20.95%),
Other gases(0.03%)

Air pressure

As we go up the layers of the atmosphere, the pressure falls rapidly. The air pressure is highest at sea level and decreases with height. In areas where the temperature is high the air gets heated and rises. This creates a low-pressure area. Low pressure is associated with cloudy skies and wet weather.In areas having a lower temperature, the air is cold. It is therefore heavy. Heavy air sinks and creates a high-pressure area.High pressure is associated with clear and sunny skies.

Our atmosphere is divided into five layers starting from the earth’s surface. These are Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere.

1.Troposphere: This layer is the most important layer of the atmosphere. 

Its average height is 13 km.The air we breathe exists here. Almost all the weather phenomena like rainfall, fog and hailstorm occur in this layer.Tropopause - it is the layer that separates the troposphere from the stratosphere.In the troposphere, the temperature generally decreases with height, whereas above the tropopause, the temperature no longer decreases.

2.Stratosphere: Above the troposphere lies the stratosphere.

 It extends up to a height of 50 km. This layer is almost free from clouds and associated weather phenomenon, making conditions most ideal for flying aeroplanes.One important feature of the stratosphere is that it contains a layer of ozone gas, which protects us from the harmful effect of the sun rays.

Layers of the Atmosphere

3. Mesosphere: This is the third layer of the atmosphere and lies above the stratosphere.

It extends up to the height of 80 km.Meteorites burn up in this layer on entering from the space.It is the coldest layer of the atmosphere.

4.Thermosphere: In thermosphere temperature rises very rapidly with increasing height.The ionosphere is a part of this layer. This layer helps in radio transmission. 

Ionosphere: It lies immediately above the mesosphere and extends from 80 to 400 km above the Earth's surface.

The ionosphere is the part of the Earth's upper atmosphere, where ions and electrons are present to affect the propagation of radio waves.In fact, radio waves transmitted from the earth are reflected back to the earth by this layer.This layer contains electrically charged air that protects the Earth from falling meteorites as most of them burn out in this region.

5. Exosphere: The uppermost layer of the atmosphere is known as  Exosphere. This layer has very thin air. Light gases like helium and hydrogen float into space from here.

GA Study Notes On Electricity

Electric Circuit 
A continuous and closed path of an electric current is called an electric circuit.
Electric current is expressed by the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time.

Direction of Electric current

Electric current was considered to be the flow of positive charges.Conventionally, in an electric circuit, the direction of electric current is taken as opposite to the direction of the flow of electrons, which are negative charges.If a net charge Q flows across any cross-section of a conductor in time t, then the current I, through the cross-section is:

          I = Q/t

The SI unit of electric charge is Coulomb (C).The SI unit of electric current is ampere (A).

One ampere
One ampere is constituted by the flow of one coulomb of charge per second.

An instrument called ammeter measures electric current in a circuit. It is always connected in series in a circuit through which the current is to be measured.

Note that the electric current flows in the circuit from the positive terminal of the cell to the negative terminal of the cell through the bulb and ammeter.

Potential Difference
The electrons move only if there is a difference of electric pressure called the potential difference along the conductor. The chemical action within a cell generates the potential difference across the terminals of the cell. When the cell is connected to a conducting circuit element, the potential difference sets the charges in motion in the conductor and produces an electric current.

One volt 
One volt is the potential difference between two points in a current carrying conductor when 1 joule of work is done to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one point to the other.

1 volt = 1 joule/1 coulomb

The potential difference, V, across the ends of a given metallic wire in an electric circuit is directly proportional to the current flowing through it, provided its temperature remains the same. 

V ∝ I
V/I = constant
V = IR
R =  Resistance

It is the property of a conductor to resist the flow of charges through it.Its SI unit is ohm(Ω).
The resistance of the conductor depends (i) on its length, (ii) on its area of cross-section, and (iii) on the nature of its material. 
R ∝ l 
and R ∝ 1/A
R ∝ l/A
or, R = ρl/A
where ρ (rho) is a constant of proportionality and is called the electrical resistivity of the material of the conductor.The SI unit of resistivity is Ω m.

Variable Resistance 
A component used to regulate current without changing the voltage source is called variable resistance.

It is often used to change the resistance in the circuit.


(i)Series resistor 

Resistors are joined end to end.The current is the same in every part of the circuit or the same current through each resistor.The resistance of the combination is greater than any individual resistance.The disadvantage of a series circuit is that when one component fails the circuit is broken and none of the components works

(ii) Parallel resistor 

Resistors are joined in parallel.The equivalent resistance of a group of resistances joined in parallel is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the individual resistances.The potential difference across each resistor is also V.The total resistance in a parallel circuit is decreased. This is helpful particularly when each gadget has different resistance and requires different current to operate properly.

Sunday, May 14, 2017

GA Study Notes On Buddhism

➤➤Buddism was founded by Gautama Siddhartha who was a Kshatriya prince of the Sakya/Shakya clan.

➤➤Lord Buddha was born in 623 BC in the sacred area of Lumbini (near Kapilavastu) located in the Terai plains of southern Nepal.

➤➤Siddhartha received enlightenment at Bodh Gaya(Bihar) at the age of 35, under a Pipal tree and became the Buddha.

➤➤He delivered his first sermon at Sarnath in Banaras and spread his message for approximately 40 years, before dying at the age of 80 in 487 BC at Kushinagar in Deoria district of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

➤➤The Buddha taught in the language of the ordinary people, Prakrit, so that everybody could understand his message.

➤➤There are many stories about Buddha’s lives and are called Jatakas.

➤➤The sacred book of Buddhism is called the Tripitaka (called Tipitaka in Pali). It is also called the Pali Canon, after the language in which it was first written.

➤➤Ajatashatru was the son of King Bimbisara and was a contemporary of both  Gautama Buddha and Mahavira. This was also the time when other scholars were at work. One of the most famous was Panini, who prepared a grammar for Sanskrit.

➤➤First Buddhist Council was held in – Rajagriha. During the fourth Buddist Council held in Kashmir, the Buddhists split two groups:
The Hinayana and the Mahayana.
⏩The Hinayana believed in the simple teachings of Buddha. They did not worship Buddha in the form of his image but honoured his footprints, umbrella and other objects. Pali was their main language.
⏩The Mahayana worshipped the image of Buddha. Sanskrit was their language. Ashwagosha, Nagarjuna, Vasubhandu were some of the greatest philosophers of Mahayanism.

➤➤The Eight-Fold Path -- Right faith, Right though, Right action, Right means of livelihood, Right exertion or efforts, Right speech, Right remembrance and Right concentration or meditation.

➤➤Three Ratnas- Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha.

➤➤Buddism flourished in India under the patronage of monarchs such as Ashoka and Kanishka.

Answer the following questions based on these Study Notes.

Q1.Who is known as Light of Asia?
Answer: Gautama Buddha

Q2.What was the name of Buddha's horse?
Answer: Kanthaka(Channa).

Q3.What is the name of worship place of Buddhists?
Answer: Pagoda.

Q4.What is Chaitya and Vihara?
Answer: Chaitya- prayer hall and Vihara - Buddhist monastery. 

Q5.What Mauryan ruler was the first to adopt Buddhism?
Answer: Ashoka.

Q6.Buddhacarita was written by?
Answer: Asvaghosa.

Q7.What is the meaning of Upanishad?
Answer: Upanishad literally means ‘approaching and sitting near

Q8.The largest Buddhist temple in the world is located in?
Answer: The largest Buddhist temple in the world is Borobudur, in Indonesia.

Q9.who was the personal physician of Gautam Buddha?
Answer: Jeevaka

Q10.The earliest Buddhist literature which deals with the stories of the various births of Buddha are
Answer: Jatakas

Sunday, May 7, 2017

Important Facts about Important Viceroys of India 


Lord Canning (1856-1862)

Immediately after Queen Victoria’s proclamation, Lord Canning was appointed the first viceroy of British India. During his tenure, the India Penal Code came into force in 1860 and the India Council Act of 1861 was passed by the British Parliament for setting up of legislative councils in the provinces, with Indians as members.

Lord Mayo (1869-1872)

The Mayo College in Ajmer was established in his honour. He improved the Andaman jail administration and made systems for the welfare of the prisoners. He was killed by a Wahabi prisoner in the Andaman jail premises.

Lord Lytton (1876-1880)

Lytton held a Durbar in Delhi, proclaiming Queen Victoria as the Empress of India. In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act restricted the freedom of the press.

Lord Ripon (1880-1884)

During Ripon’s period, there was a phase of progress with the Factories Act, 1881, which tried to improve the position of factory workers.

Lord Dufferin (1884-1888)

The Indian National Congress was also formed during this timeDufferin appointed the Public Service Commission in 1886.

Lord Curzon (1899-1905)

The Swadeshi Movement and Partition of Bengal (1905-1911) were crucial events that took place during his tenure. Curzon is remembered for his Police reforms under the guidance of Sir Andrew Frazer. He brought about education reforms by setting up the Raleigh Commission. Curzon passed the Ancient Monument Protection Act, 1904, and the Punjab Land Act, 1905.

Lord Harding II (1910-1916)

Notable events during Harding II’s tenure were the visit of King George V and Queen Mary in December 1911, to celebrate the accession of King George V. a Great Durbar was held in Delhi in their honour. Further, the capital of India was shifted from Kolkata to Delhi. The Partition of Bengal was annulled during his term.

Lord Chelmsford (1916-1922)

Important events during Chelmsford’s term were as follows: (i) the August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people; (ii) the Government of India Act, 1919, (Montague-Chelmsford Reforms) was passed; (iii) the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre that took place on 13 April 1919; (iv) organization of Mahatma Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement called satyagraha and (v) the Rowlatt Act of 1919. Agitation began all over the country against the Rowlatt Act.

Lord Reading (1922-1926)

Significant events of his term were as follows: (i) the Ahmedabad Session of 1921; (ii) Formation of Swaraj Party; (iii) Communal riots of 1922

Lord Linlithgow (1936-1943)

The Muslim League leader, Jinnah, demanded the state the Pakistan for the Muslims. The Cripps Mission of 1942 was a failure and the Quit India Resolution was passed by the Congress.

Lord Mountbatten (March 1947-August 1947)

Lord Mountbatten was the last Viceroy and the first Governor-General of free India. The partition of India was decided by the June 3rd Plan, and the Indian Independence Act, 1947, was passed, which made India an independent nation on 15 August 1947, and Pakistan a free nation on 14 August 1947. Lord Mountbatten retired in June 1948 and was succeeded by C. Rajagopalachari, who became the first Indian Governor-General of independent India.

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

History Notes: 1857 Revolt For SSC CGL EXAM

General facts-
PM of England – Palmerston
Governor general – Lord Canning of India
Emperor of India – Bahadur Sah Jafar
Commander of Britishers –Campbell

A. Reason between 1757 – 1857
Wellesely – Treaty of Subsidiary Alliance
Dallousive – Doctrine of lapse
Revenue System- Exploitation of Peasents
Education  → Modernity → Analysis
Indian Industries → closed
Rural Industries → closed
Conversion into Christan
Social interference → Sati, Slave, widow remarriage Act.
Sepoy dissatisfaction

B. Immediate Cause
Use of rifle,  cartridges of this rifle were made from cow and pig fat.


Nature of Revolt

Lorentz & Seele  :  Sepoy movement
Reege               : Revolt against Christianity
Homes                : A war between cirilisation and anarchasim
Taylor                 : Hindu – Muslim conspiracy
Disraeli                 : National movement
R. C. majumdar : Neither first nor national and freedom struggle
V. D. Sawarkar : First war of Independence

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Important Newspapers for Governments Exam

1. Al-Ahram - Egypt 

2. Izvestia - Russia 

3. The Dawn - Pakistan 

4. Daily News - USA

5. Daily Telegraph - UK

6. Aftonbladet - Sweden 

7. The Daily Mirror - UK

8. The Times - UK

9. The Guardian - UK

10. New Statesman - UK

11. New York Times - USA

12. Pakistan Times - Pakistan 

13. Pravda - Russia 

14. People’s Daily - China 

15. Merdeka - Indonesia 

16. Le Monde - France 

17. Wall Street Journal - USA

18. Clarin - Argentina 

19. The Age - Australia 

20. Gulf Daily News - Bahrain 

21. Correio Braziliense - Brazil 

22. Chronical-Herald - Canada 

23. China Daily - China 

24. Middle East times - Egypt 

25. Courier International - Germany 

26. The Jakarta Post - Indonesia 

27. Tehran Times - Iran 

28. Globes - Israel 

29. La Repubblica - Italy 

30. Asahi Shimbun - Japan 

31. El Universal - Mexico 

32. Gazeta Wyborcza - Poland 

33. O’Independente - Portugal 

34. Gulf Times - Qatar 

35. Gazeta - Russia 

36. Politika - Serbia 

37. El Mundo - Spain 

38. Aksam - Turkey  

Important Sports Terminology For SSC CGL EXAM

Badminton- Deuce, Smash, Drop ; Let , Game , Love , Double Fault.

Baseball-  Pitcher , Strike , Diamond , Bunting , Home , Put Out.

Boat Race - Cox.

Billiards - Jigger , Break , Scratch , Cannons , Pot , Cue , In Baulk , In Off.

Boxing -Jab , Hook , Punch , Knock-out , Upper cut , Kidney Punch.

Bridge - Revoke , Ruff , Dummy , Little Slam , Grand Slam , Trump , Diamonds , Tricks

Chess - Gambit , Checkmate , Stalemate , Check.

Cricket - L.B.W , Maiden over , tumped , Ashes , Hattrick  ,Leg Bye , Follow on , Googly , Gulley , Silly Point , Duck , Run , Drive , No ball , Cover point , Leg Spinner , Wicket Keeper , Pitch , Crease , Bowling , Leg-Break , Hit-Wicket , Bouncer , Stone-Walling.

Crocquet - Mallett , Hoops.

Football - Dribble , Off-Side , Penalty , Throw-in , Hat-Tick , Foul , Touch , Down , Drop Kick , Stopper.

Golf - Hole , Bogey , Put , Stymie , Caddie , Tee , Links , Putting the green.

Hockey - Bully , Hat-Trick , Short corner , Stricks , Striking Circle , Penalty corner , Under cutting , Scoop , Centre forward , Carry , Dribble , Goal , Carried.

Horse Racing - Punter , Jockey , Place , Win , Protest.

Kho-Kho - Runner , Chaser , Poleby , Out , Foul.

Lawn Tennis - Volley , Smash , Service , Back-hand-drive.

Polo - Chukker , Bunder , Mallet.

Rifle Shooting - Bull's eyes.

Rugby Football - Drop Kick , Screen.

Skiing - Tobogganing.

Swimming - Stroke.

Volleyball - Deuce  Booster , Spikers , Service , Love.

Wrestling - Heave , Half Nelson.

Sunday, February 26, 2017

Important Trophies and Associated Games (Part-II) For All Competitive Exam

Important Trophies and Associated Games 

Presidents Cup: Football

Prince of Wales Cup: Golf (England)

Raiffeisen Grand Prix Title: Tennis

RCA Championship Title: Tennis

Rogers Cup: Tennis

Ryder Cup: Golf (England)

Schneider Cup: Seaplane Race (England)

Swaythling Cup: World Table Tennis (men)

Thailand Open: Tennis

Thomas Cup: World Badminton (men)  

Tunku Abdul Rahman Cup: Asian Badminton

U Thant Cup: Lawn Tennis

Uber Cup: World Badminton (women)

UEFA Cup: Football

US Open: Tennis (Grand Slam Tennis)

Virginia Long Corn Trophy: Boxing

Virginia Slam Championship: Tennis

Walker Cup: Golf (England)

WBA Title: Boxing

WBC crown: Boxing

Westchester Cup: Polo (England)  

Whiteman Cup: Tennis

Wightman Cup: Tennis (women: USA and England)

William Cup: Basketball

William Todd Memorial Trophy: Basketball

Wimbledon Trophy: Tennis

Wimbledon, French Open: Tennis (Grand Slam Tennis)

World Cup Championship: Boxing

World Heavyweight Championship: Boxing

WTA Championship: Tennis

WTA-ING Vysya Open: Tennis 

Study notes on "VITAMINS" (Part-II) for SSC CGL Pre 2017

VITAMIN A (Retinol)


Dairy products, cod liver oil,liver, dark green and yellow vegetables and fruits


Maintains eye healthPromotes growth and development, maintains healthy bones and teethEnhances the protection and regeneration of cells and mucous membraneMaintains healthy respiratory and intestinal tractsMaintain healthy hair, nails and skin


Night blindness, dry eyesDry skinStomach discomfortPoor growthWeak bones and teeth


Dry, scaly, peeling, and itchy skin, rashHair lossPoor appetite, fatigueVomiting, stomach discomfortLiver injuryHeadache, bone painNervousness, irritability


VITAMIN B1 (Thymine)


sprouts, yeast



VITAMIN B2 (Ryboflabin)


sprout, present in cow's milk(yellowish)


Cheilosis, ulceration

VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine)


It is responsible for rememeber dreams.


Anaemia Nervousness, insomnia, depression Muscle cramps

VITAMIN C (Ascorbic acid)


Citrus fruits(orange,grapefruit,lemon),strawberry,black current,kiwi fruit, tomato, green leafy vegetables, green pepper


Helps synthesize collagen; promotes the growth and repair of cells, gum, teeth, blood vessels and bonesHelps healing after operation and injuryHelps calcium and iron absorptionEnhances immunity


ScurvyGuminflammation and bleeding, fall of teethSusceptibility to skin bleeding, burst of capillary vesselsWeakness, fatigueBone pain, swollen and aching joints


Abdominal painDiarrheaKidney stone

In smokers and drinkers vitamin C is absent

Study notes on "VITAMINS" (Part-I) SSC CGL Pre 2017

Dear Students, SSC CGL 2017 Pre exam in scheduled in the month of June/July 2017. At SA, We are providing to you the NOTES ON GENERAL SCIENCE, these notes will help you build your basic understanding of all topics and you'll be able to score maximum marks in SSC CGL Pre exam. Study, Revise and Learn all these notes by heart. 

VITAMIN K (Phylloquinone)


Green leafy vegetables, soya beans. The human body can also produce Vitamin K through germs in the colon(part of small intestine).


  • Helps blood clotting, prevent over bleeding
  • Maintains health of the liver


Uncontrol bleeding from wounds due to clotting difficulty


Can lead to liver damage

VITAMIN E (Tocopherol)=Beauty Vitamin

It is also known as Antisterility Vitamin.


Green leafy vegetables, whole-wheat cereals, nuts, sprouts, egg  yolk


  • Maintains normal conditions of cells, and healthy skin and tissues
  • Protects red blood cells
  • Antioxidation
  • Enhance immunity


New born infants: haemolytic anaemia

Adults: weakness


  • Low thyroxine level
  • Fertility Desease
  • Headache, dizziness, fatigue
  • Stomach discomfort, poor appetite

VITAMIN D (Calciferol)=(Sunhine Vitamin)


Egg yolk, liver, cod liver oil, fish. Our skins also produces Vitamin D when exposed to sunlight


  • Helps body absorb and utilize calcium and phosphorus, so as to maintain bones, teeth and brain healthy
  • Maintains normal calcium level in blood


  • Children: rickets
  • Adults: Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis


  • Calcified cartilage
  • High calcium level in the blood causes abnormal heart beat and damage to organs such as kidneys
  • Vomiting, diarrhea
  • Sore eyes
  • Itchy skin

Important Geometry Formula For SSC CGL Exam 2017

Dear Readers, Here We are providing a Study Notes of Quantitative Aptitude in accordance with the syllabus of SSC CGL. These notes are based on the Important formula of Circle. This will help you to solve more Questions of Geometry in very less time. 


Sunday, January 22, 2017


Definition: A rise in the general level of price in an economy. That is sustained over time.

The opposite of Inflation in ‘deflation’.Inflation, in general, is just a price rise.When the general level of prices is falling over a period of time it is called deflation.The rate of inflation is measured on the basis of price indices which are of two kind WPI & CPIWPI - Wholesale Price IndexCPI - Consumer price Index

Rate of inflation (Year x)

In the index, the total weight is taken as 100 at particular year of the past i.e. Base year (Year of reference)Inflation is measured ‘point to point’. It means that the reference dates for the annual inflation are January to January of two consecutive years. This is similar for even weekly inflation.

Types of Inflation: Broadly there are 2 types of inflation.
(a) Demand - Pull Inflation:

A mismatch between demand & supply pulls up the price.Either demand increases over the same level of supply or the supply decreases the same level of demand.This is Keynesian idea.

(b) Cost - Push Inflation:-

An increase factor input costs (i.e. wage & raw materials) push up the prices.A price rise which is the result of the increase in the production cost is cost - push inflation.

A measure of check inflation:-
(1) Supply side: 

Govt may import.Govt may increase production.Govt may improve storage. Transportation, hoarding etc

(2) Cost side:

Govt may cut down production cost by giving tax breaks, cuts in duties etc.By adopting Better production process, technological Innovation etc.Increasing Income of people also helps in checking inflation.

(3) Other steps:

 Tighter monetary policies can be introduced by RBI, this might help in a short run.Increasing production with the help of best production practices is a long term solution.

Other types of inflation: In General there are 3 Broad Categories i.e.
(i) Low inflation:- 

 It is slow & predictable. Takes place in a longer period. The range of increase is usually in single digit. It is also called CREEPING INFLATION

(ii) Galloping Inflation:- 

It is very high inflationRange of increase is usually in double digit or triple digit It is also known as hopping inflation, jumping inflation & Running Runaway inflation. 

(iii) Hyper-Inflation:-

This type of inflation is large and Accelerating. (This might have annual rates in Millions or even Trillion.(Range of increase is very large but increase takes place in a very short span of time. The price shoots up overnight.

Over variants of inflation:-  
(i) Bottleneck inflation:-

This inflation takes place when supply falls drastically & the demand remains at the same level. Such situation arises due to supply ride accidents, hazards or Mismanagement.It is also known as ‘structural Inflation’It can be put Under ‘demand-pull inflation

(ii) Core inflation:-

This nomenclature is based on the inclusion or Exclusion of the good & services while calculating inflation.  In India, it was 1st time used in the financial year 2001-02. In India, it means inflation of Manufactured goods. 

Wednesday, January 4, 2017


Green Revolution – I
Introduced in 1966 (Plan Holiday)
Father of Green Revolt – Dr. Norman Borlog
Father of Green Revolt – M. S. Swaminathan (In India)

Objectives: - Use of high yielding variety seeds, fertiliser, power and increase food productivity.
Green Revolt – Phase – I – Wheat 
Phase – II – Rice
Focus Area: - Punjab, Haryana, Western U.P.  

Green Revolution– II   concept by – Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
“Evergreen Revolution or Rainbow revolution”
Start in decade of 2000
Objective: - Promote agriculture a/c to climate condition and also promote organic farming and increase overall food security.
Focus crop: - Milk, egg, Meat, Vegetable → A/C to climatic condition
Focus Area: - All India

Organic farming: - No use/less use of fertiliser
- use bio fertiliser, like – Earthworm
- the concept is given by – Albert Howard (1930 – 40)

Zero farming: - up to 3-4 years. – Continuous use of organic fertiliser/ organic farming and due to this fertility of soil increase and After  some period, there will be no use of fertiliser


In this farming, after cutting one crop the land is left as it is for some years. Nothing is grown there. The weeds or bamboo which grow on that land are not pulled out. They are cut and burnt. The ash makes the land fertile. While burning, care is taken so that the fire does not spread to other parts of the forest. When the land is ready for farming it is lightly dug up, not ploughed. Seeds are dropped on it. In one farm different types of crops like maize, vegetables, chillies, rice can be grown.

Tribal society (Northeast region)

Consumption of NPK (Ideal) = 4 : 2 : 1
                                 In India = 5.5 : 2.7 : 1 (used)
Net sawing Area (India) = 142 million Hectare → 39% Irrigated
Irrigation: Wells, tube well (60%) > Canal (27%) > Tank (13%)
Net Irrigated area: U.P. > M.P. > RJ
Irrigation Intensity: PB > U.P.
Tank Irrigation: AP > TN > UP
Well Irrigation: UP > PB > Bihar
Canal Irrigation: UP > RJ > HR

1. Micro → Less than 2000 Hectare
2. Medium → 2000 – 5000 Hectare
3. Large → Above 5000 Hectare

Major crops in India
1. Rice:-
Monsoon/Tropical crop
world – India (maximum Area – Sow – Rice)
Largest producer of rice in world – China
Second – India 

1. Samba, Kuruwai – Tamilnadu
2. Kamini – WB
3. Basmati – UP

National Rice Research Institute – Katak (Orissa)
Largest rice producer in India – WB
Bowl of rice – Chattisgarh (Per hectare productivity max.)
People of India – Maximum eating habit – Rice
Nellore District(AP) – Rice productive high
Highest fertiliser used – HP

2. Wheat:-
2nd largest food crop in India
Largest wheat producer of world – China
2nd largest wheat producer of world – India
Largest wheat producer in India – UP > PB > HR
export – Punjab
productivity – Punjab

1. Larma
2. Rajo
3. Sonal

1. BARLEY ( U.P.)
3. Maize (AP)
11. SUGAR (MH)
16. ONION (MH)
17. JUTE (WB)

Thursday, December 29, 2016

SSC - Sample Online Exam

Dear Students, SSC is going to conduct CHSL 2016 from 7th January 2017 to 5th February 2017. SSC has already issued the venue details of candidates. Soon, SSC will issue Admit cards also. Keep checking your respective regional websites for Admit Cards. 

SSC has also issued a Sample Online Exam for candidate's convenience and training for the online exam. You can check it on SSC official website. It's important to be familiar with the latest change in the pattern  of The SSC Computer Based Exam. 

SSC has taken a very good initiative by uploading a Sample Online Exam. Below, You'll find the link and a screenshot of the Sample form. All the candidates are advised to go through this Sample Online Exam and be exam ready. 

We wish you all the very best for your SSC CHSL Exam. 




Sunday, August 21, 2016




Valency may be defined as “the combining capacity of the atom of an element with atoms of other elements in order to acquire the stable configuration (i.e. 8 electron in valence shell. In some special cases it is 2 electrons).”


It refers to the distance between the centre of nucleus of an isolated atom to its outermost shell containing electrons.

The atomic radius decreases on moving from left to right along a period. This is due to an increase in nuclear charge which tends to pull the electrons closer to the nucleus and reduces the size of the atom.

In a group atomic size increases from top to bottom due to increase in number of shells.


In a period from left to right metallic nature decreases while non-metallic character increases.

In a group metallic character increases from top to bottom while non-metallic character decrease.

Monday, August 8, 2016

Study notes on "Trigonometry" for SSC CGL

Dear Readers,

SSC CGL Pre Is near. Now It's Important to learn and revise all the important Formulas of advanced maths. We'll provide you all the tricky notes and formulas. these notes are based on the type of questions that are asked in SSC CGL exam. 


π radian = 180°

If an arc of length ‘s’ subtends an angle θ radian at the centre of a circle of radius, r then s = rθ.


P – Perpendicular

B – Base

H – Hypotenuse


Sunday, August 7, 2016

How to Crack SSC CGL in 30 Days :Smart Strategy

Source: Bankersadda
As an SSC aspirant, this is the very important time of your life career wise.   We are here to help you in your journey towards success. We are going to plan a 30-day schedule. Follow it honestly. Guys, remember Success is always about discipline and perseverance.
First and foremost, Know your syllabus completely. And strategize your course of action.
Students, this year onwards all the exams of the SSC are going to be online, hence you are advised to be familiar with the online format and PRACTICE ONLINE TEST SERIES. It will help you immensely and your dream of getting a job might come true in this year itself. Give your best Shot. DON’T SETTLE, TILL YOU MAKE IT.
Here, in no particular order of preference, is the strategy to be followed by students.
Introduction of the SSC CGL Pre 2016 examination: (as per the latest change in pattern) 

Saturday, July 30, 2016

Important Days India and International

January 01 : Global family day, Army Medical Corps Establishment Day.
January 06 : World War Orphans Day.
January 08 : African National Congress Foundation day
January 09 : NRI day / Pravasi Bhartiya Divas.
January 10 : World laughter day.
January 11 : death day of Lal Bahadur Shastri
January 12 : National Youth Day, Swami Vivekanand Birthday
January 15 : Army Day.
January 23 : Netaji Subhash Chandra bose birthday.
January 24 : National Girl Child day of India.
January 25 : India Tourism Day Indian Voter Day, International Customs Duty Day.
January 26 : India's Republic Day
January 26 : International Customs day.
January 27 : International Holocaust Remembrance Day.
January 28 : Lala Lajpat Rai birthday
January 28 : Data protection day
January 30 : National Martyrs' Day or Sarvodaya Day
January 30 : World leprosy eradication day.


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